MCQs on Gastrointestinal infections: Medical microbiology

                                     MCQs on Gastrointestinal infections

1. A 24 year old female student traveled to a rural area in a developing country for a research purpose and returned 5 days ago. She comes to the emergency department with a 3-day history of watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and occasional episodes of nausea. She reports passing loose stools more than 10 times a day and feeling weak due to fluid loss. The abdominal cramps are localized in the lower abdomen and are exacerbated before bowel movements. The patient denies any bloody stools or fever.
Upon examination, she appeared dehydrated, has tachycardia (elevated heart rate). She has low blood pressure, dry mucous membranes. Mild tenderness in the lower abdomen is found with no signs of abdominal distension or rigidity.
Microscopic examination of stool samples is conducted, it reveals the presence of trophozoites of a protozoan parasite with flagella.
Based on the clinical presentation and stool examination, what could be the possible infection?
a) Amebic Dysentery 
b) Shigellosis
c) Cholera
d) Typhoid

2. Which of the following virus is the primary cause of gastrointestinal infection in newborns and infants?
a) Campylobacter jejuni
b) Rhinovirus
c) Rotavirus     
d) Coronavirus

3. What is a common complication of severe diarrhea, particularly in children, that can result from gastrointestinal infections?
a) Anemia
b) Dehydration    
c) Hyperglycemia
d) Hypertension

4. Which of the following bacterial pathogen is associated with causing ulcers in the stomach and duodenum?
a) Clostridium difficile
b) Helicobacter pylori     
c) Listeria monocytogenes
d) Salmonella enterica

5. Which of the following is a common source of transmission for hepatitis A virus in gastrointestinal infections?
a) Contaminated water and food     
b) Inhalation of respiratory droplets
c) Casual contact with an infected person
d) Mosquito bites

6. Which parasitic infection is often associated with the consumption of undercooked pork?
a) Giardiasis
b) Cryptosporidiosis
c) Trichinosis      
d) Salmonellosis

7. Which bacterial pathogen is known for causing severe diarrhea, often with blood and mucus, and is associated with unsanitary water sources in developing countries?
a) Entamoeba histolytica
b) Helicobacter pylori
c) Shigella dysenteriae
d) Vibrio cholerae     

8. Which bacterial gastroenteritis pathogen can lead to the potentially life-threatening complication known as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?
a) Campylobacter jejuni
b) Cryptosporidium canis
c) E. coli O157:H7     
d) Salmonella typhi

9. Which of the following viral gastroenteritis pathogen is typically associated with fever, cough, and respiratory symptoms in addition to gastrointestinal symptoms?
a) Adenovirus          
b) Hepatitis E virus
c) Norovirus
d) Rabies virus

10. What is the most common fungus associated with fungal gastroenteritis?
a) Bacillus subtilis
b) Candida albicans          
c) Cryptococcus neoformans
d) Histoplasma capsulatum

11. A 23-year-old man, presents to the outpatient clinic with a history of fever, headache, and abdominal pain for the past week. He reports that his fever has been progressively increasing and is now as high as 103°F. He also mentions experiencing weakness, fatigue, and a lack of appetite. He states that he recently returned from a trip to a region with poor sanitation and consumed local street food during his visit.
Upon examination, the patient has elevated temperature 103°F, increased heart rate. Abdominal examination reveals tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, enlarged spleen (splenomegaly) on palpation with no signs of dehydration.
Typhoid fever is strongly suspected, based on the patient's recent travel to an area with a high incidence of the disease and physical examination.
Which of the following specimen is frequently taken for the culture and isolation of the typhoid bacteria?
a) Blood
b) Nasal swabs
c) Respiratory secretions
d) Urine

1. a) Amebic Dysentery 
2. c) Rotavirus  
3. b) Dehydration    
4. b) Helicobacter pylori     
5. a) Contaminated water and food     
6. c) Trichinosis  
7. d) Vibrio cholerae
8. c) E. coli O157:H7
9. a) Adenovirus  
10. b) Candida albicans  
11. a) Blood