MCQs on emerging viral infections

                           MCQs on emerging viral infections

1. What are the possible cause of an emerging virus infection? 
Select all the correct answers
a) Genetic mutation
b) Overeating
c) Insufficient physical exercise
d) Zoonotic transmission (animals to humans)

2. Which of the following measures are the effective preventive measures to control the spread of the emerging viral infections?
a) Quarantine and social distancing 
b) Receiving the available vaccines
c) Surveillance and contact tracing
d) All of the above

3. How is the Zika virus primarily transmitted to humans?
a) Airborne transmission
b) Contact with infected animals
c) Mosquito bites 
d) Sexual contact

4. Which of the following diseases is associated with severe hemorrhagic fever and has caused outbreaks in Africa?
a) Ebola virus disease
b) Dengue fever
c) Chikungunya fever
d) MERS-CoV infection

5. Nipah virus outbreaks are linked to which type of animal?
a) Birds
b) Fruit bats
c) Monkeys
d) Rodents

6. What is the primary reservoir host for the Hantavirus?
a) Birds
b) Camels
c) Mosquitoes
d) Rodents

7. Which of the following virus transmitted by mosquitoes to humans or through sexual contact has been associated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)?
a) Hantavirus
b) HIV
c) Zika virus
d) COVID-19

8. Lassa fever is endemic in which region of the world?
a) Southeast Asia
b) Europe
c) South America
d) West Africa

9. Chikungunya virus primarily causes:
a) Gastrointestinal symptoms
b) Joint pain and fever
c) Severe respiratory illness
d) Skin rashes

10. Avian influenza (H5N1 and H7N9) viruses are of concern due to their:
a) Ability to cause the common cold
b) High mortality rate in humans
c) Transmission through sexual contact
d) Resistance to all antiviral medications

11. There is human to human transmission of Nipah virus, TRUE or FALSE
a) True
b) False

12. Which of the following symptom is the characteristic severe infection of the Hantavirus in humans?
a) Encephalitis
b) Guillain-Barré syndrome
c) Paralysis
d) Pulmonary syndrome

13. Which of the following condition is caused by a novel coronavirus and was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012?
a) Congenital Zika syndrome (CGS) 
b) Hantavirus Pulmonary syndrome (HAS)
c) Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS)
d) Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)

14. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is caused by which of the following virus?
a) Coronavirus
b) Ebola virus
c) Human Immunodeficiency virus
d) Hantavirus

15. Name the emerging virus that is associated with birth defects, microcephaly in newborns.
a) Ebola virus
b) Zika virus
c) Dengue virus
d) Nipah virus

16. What is the possible reservoir host for Monkeypox virus?
a) Birds
b) Mosquitoes
c) Reptiles
d) Squirrels

Answers with Explanation
1. a)Genetic mutation. Many emerging viruses originate in animals and are transmitted to humans (zoonoses). such as HIV, Ebola, and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).
d) Zoonotic transmission (animals to humans). Viruses can mutate and acquire new traits that enable them to infect new hosts or become more transmissible.

2. d) All of the above

3. c) Mosquito bites. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes.

4. a) Ebola virus disease. Ebola virus is transmitted to humans from wild animals and then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of infected people. It is a highly contagious virus that causes Ebola virus disease (EVD), a severe and often fatal illness in humans and nonhuman primates.

5. b) Fruit bats. Human infections often occur when people come into direct contact with contaminated materials, such as consuming raw date palm sap that has been contaminated by bat excretions (urine, feces, saliva).

6. d) Rodents. Hantavirus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents and their excreta, such as urine, feces, or saliva. 
7. c) Zika virus. In some cases, Zika virus infection has been associated with an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare neurological disorder that can lead to muscle weakness and paralysis.

8. d) West Africa
9. b) Joint pain and fever
10. b) High mortality rate in humans

11. a) True. Human-to-human transmission can occur via respiratory droplets, contact with infected blood, secretions, or other bodily fluids, and by touching surfaces contaminated with the virus.

12. d) Pulmonary syndrome. A severe respiratory symptoms and can be fatal, it can lead to coughing, shortness of breath, and pulmonary edema (fluid buildup in the lungs), which can be life-threatening.

13. c) Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). It is an emerging viral infection caused by a novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

14. d) Hantavirus. The virus can lead to clinical syndrome known as HFRS which is characterized by fever, renal dysfunction, and hemorrhagic manifestations.

15. b) Zika virus. It can be transmitted from infected mother to fetus during pregnancy. The infection can lead to congenital Zika syndrome, which includes a range of birth defects in infants, microcephaly (abnormally small head and brain).

16. d) Squirrels. Monkeypox virus is transmitted to humans through direct contact with infected animals, such as hunting, preparing, or consuming bushmeat. Human to human transmission can also occur through respiratory droplets and other body secretions of infected person.