ACE Inhibitors for Hypertension Treatment: Mechanism and Types- Pharmocology Notes

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors for hypertension treatment

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a class of medications commonly used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). They work by targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), a complex regulatory system that plays a significant role in blood pressure regulation and fluid balance. Here's how ACE inhibitors work to treat hypertension:

Inhibition of ACE Enzyme: ACE inhibitors inhibit the activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE is responsible for converting angiotensin I, an inactive precursor, into angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes blood vessels to constrict, which increases blood pressure.

Vasodilation: By inhibiting ACE, ACE inhibitors reduce the production of angiotensin II. As a result, there is less angiotensin II available to constrict blood vessels. With decreased vasoconstriction, the blood vessels relax and dilate, leading to vasodilation. This widening of the blood vessels reduces peripheral vascular resistance, making it easier for blood to flow through them and decreasing blood pressure.

Aldosterone Suppression: ACE inhibitors also decrease the secretion of aldosterone, a hormone that promotes the retention of sodium and water by the kidneys. When aldosterone levels are reduced, there is less sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys. This results in increased urine production and a decrease in blood volume. Lower blood volume contributes to lower blood pressure.

Reduction in Blood Pressure: The combined effects of vasodilation, reduced peripheral vascular resistance, and decreased blood volume lead to a decrease in blood pressure. This reduction in blood pressure is beneficial for individuals with hypertension, as it helps bring their blood pressure within a normal or target range.

List of some common ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) inhibitors that are used for the treatment of hypertension

Enalapril (Vasotec): Enalapril is an ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and other cardiovascular conditions.

Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril): Lisinopril is a widely prescribed ACE inhibitor used for hypertension management and the prevention of heart failure.

Captopril (Capoten): Captopril is one of the first ACE inhibitors developed and is used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and diabetic kidney problems.

Ramipril (Altace): Ramipril is an ACE inhibitor used for managing high blood pressure and reducing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other cardiovascular events.

Benazepril (Lotensin): Benazepril is used to treat hypertension and can also be used in combination with other medications to manage heart failure.

Perindopril (Coversyl): Perindopril is prescribed for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular conditions.

Quinapril (Accupril): Quinapril is an ACE inhibitor used to lower blood pressure and manage heart failure.

Fosinopril (Monopril): Fosinopril is used for the management of hypertension and may also be prescribed for other heart-related conditions.

Trandolapril (Mavik): Trandolapril is an ACE inhibitor indicated for the treatment of hypertension.

Moexipril (Univasc): Moexipril is used to manage high blood pressure.