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Pharmacology of Renal System and Diuretics: MCQ

Pharmacology of Renal System and Diuretics Multiple Choice Question 1) Osmotic diuretics are contraindicated in a) Increased in...

Medical Microbiology: MCQ on Coronavirus Virus

January 22, 2020
1) The first case of  coronavirus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) was found in Asia in 2002, which of the following country has the greatest number of deaths from the virus till date?
a) China
b) Brazil
c) USA
d) Japan

2) When was the first case of the coronavirus infection seen in USA? Select from the options below
a) 2003
b) 2013
c) 2019
d) 2020

3) Which of the following virus is do not cause common colds in human?
a) Coronavirus
b) Rhinovirus
c) Rotavirus
d) Influenza virus

4) Which of the following statement is not true about the important properties of Coronavirus?
a) Nonenveloped RNA virus
b) Enveloped RNA virus
c) Distributed around the world
d) Can spread from person to person

5) Coronavirus can cause gastroenteritis in animals. True or False?
a) True >
b) False

6) Which of the following are seen at higher risks in Coronavirus infections?
a) Women
b) 18 – 35 years of age
c) Men
d) All of the above

7) There is no proper treatment available for the SARS caused by coronavirus, which of the following is NOT the preventive measures for the virus to spread from one person to another?
a) Quarantine of the infected person
b) Travel restriction to the epidemic area
c) Proper laboratory clothing with mask, gloves and goggles by health care worker
d) Vaccination during the cold seasons

8) Recent outbreak of Coronavirus was reported which has spread to many countries and linked to serious illness resulting in deaths. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the infection caused by coronavirus?
a) Animal to human transmission have been found
b) Person to person transmission has not been found
c) SARS is the severe respiratory infection caused by coronavirus
d) High fever, cold and difficulty in breathing are the symptoms

9) Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) is the type of coronavirus, when was the first case of this virus reported?
a) 2003
b) 2020
c) 2012
d) 2019

10) The most likely source of the MERS-CoV to humans are.............?
a) Dogs
b) Fishes
c) Camels
d) Birds

11) Which of the following is Not the most common symptoms of infection caused by the coronavirus?
a) High fever
b) Runny nose
c) Difficulty in breathing
d) Brown spots around the face

12) Which of the following is Not the proper specimen for the identification of SARS-CoV?
a) Nasal secretions
b) Urine
c) Blood
d) Stool

Answers
1-a) China >
2-d) 2020 >
3-c) Rotavirus >
4-a) Nonenveloped RNA virus >
5-a) True >
6-d) All of the above >
7-d) Vaccination during the cold seasons >
8-b) Person to person transmission has not been found >
9-c) 2012 >
10-c) Camels >
11-d) Brown spots around the face >
12-b) Urine



Medical Microbiology: MCQ on Coronavirus Virus Medical Microbiology: MCQ on Coronavirus Virus Reviewed by Biotechnology on January 22, 2020 Rating: 5

Endocrinology: Thyroid Hormone Disorders and Function test

December 01, 2019

Thyroid Hormone Synthesis, Disorder, and Function Test- Multiple Choice Questions

1) Which of the following amino acid is the precursor for the synthesis of thyroid hormones?
a) Tryptophan
b) Tyrosine
c) Alanine
d) Proline

2) Which of the following form is the active form of thyroid hormone
a) T3
b) T4
c) rT3
d) None of the above

3) Which of the following proteins is the precursor for the thyroid hormone, and also a marker of thyroidal cancer?
a) Thyroalbumin
b) Thyroglobulin
c) Thyroid binding globulin
d) All of the above

4) The majority of the thyroid hormones in the blood are bound to proteins. Which of the following is not the thyroid hormone-binding proteins in the plasma?
a) Albumin
b) Thyroglobulin
c) Thyroid binding globulin
d) None of the above

5) Which of the following is the transporter responsible for the transport of iodine into the thyroid cells against the concentration gradient?
a) Na+ I- symport
b) K+ I- symport
c) I-/Cl- antiport
d) None of the above

6) Thyroperoxidase is an enzyme responsible for thyroid hormone synthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the following reaction except:
a) Conversion of iodide to iodine-free radical
b) Incorporation of iodine to a tyrosine residue of thyroglobulin
c) Condensation of monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine
d) Cleavage and release of thyroid hormones

7) In addition to inhibiting thyroid hormone synthesis, which of the following chemical drug that also reduces the uptake of iodine into the thyroid cells?
a) Carbimazole
b) Methimazole
c) Thiourea
d) All of the above

8) The thyroid hormone synthesis is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesized by the anterior pituitary gland. The increased thyroid hormone synthesis is mediated by:
a) increased cGMP production in follicular cells
b) increased cAMP production in follicular cells
c) increased Ca+2 ions in the follicular cells
d) increased diacylglycerol production in follicular cells

9) Which of the following cellular processes increase in response to thyroid-stimulating hormones?
a) Uptake of iodide into the follicular cells
b) Synthesis of thyroglobulin proteins
c) Incorporation of iodide ions into tyrosine molecules of thyroglobulin
d) All of the above

10) The deiodinase are responsible for the removal of iodine from T4 molecules to produce T3 & rT3. Which of the type of the enzyme catalyzes the conversion of rT3?
a) Type I
b) Type II
c) Type III
d) None of the above

Answers
1-b) Tyrosine
2-a) T3
3-b) Thyroglobulin
4-b) Thyroglobulin
5-a) Na+ I- symport
6-d) Cleavage and release of thyroid hormones
7-a) Carbimazole
8-b) increased cAMP production in follicular cells
9-d) All of the above
10-c) Type III


Endocrinology: Thyroid Hormone Disorders and Function test Endocrinology: Thyroid Hormone Disorders and Function test Reviewed by Biotechnology on December 01, 2019 Rating: 5

Accurate Quantification and Characterization of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors

November 04, 2019
In this original research article, Dobnik et al. used the molecular biology technique and the transmission electron microscopy technique to characterize and quantitate the viral vectors used for clinical trials.

Accurate Quantification and Characterization of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors
David Dobni, et al 2019. Frontier in Microbiology

One of the main challenges in the gene therapy viral vector development is to establish an optimized process for its large scale production. This requires optimization for upstream and downstream processes as well as methods that enable the step-by step analytical characterization of the virus, the results of which inform the iterative refinement of production for yield, purity and potency. The biggest problem here is a plethora of viral vector formulations, many of which interfere with analytical techniques. We took adeno-associated virus (AAV) as an example and showed benefits of combined use of molecular methods and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for viral vectors’ characterization and quantification. Results of the analyses showed that droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) performs better than quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), in terms of robustness and assay variance, and this was especially relevant for partially purified (in-process) samples. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of sample preparation prior to PCR analysis. We evaluated viral structure, presence of aggregates and impurities with TEM analysis and found that these impacted the differences in viral titers observed by qPCR and ddPCR and could be altered by sample preparation. These results serve as a guide for the establishment of the analytical methods required to provide measures of identity and purity for AAV viral vectors.

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Accurate Quantification and Characterization of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors Accurate Quantification and Characterization of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors Reviewed by Biotechnology on November 04, 2019 Rating: 5

Mitigation strategy for Unwanted Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins

November 04, 2019
In this review article, Fontana et al. discuss the strategies for reducing immunogenicity for therapeutic proteins using various immunomodulatory regimens. These immunomodulatory strategies may reduce the deleterious effect of the immune response evoked against the therapeutic proteins, and improve the safety and efficacy of therapeutic proteins.
The strategies include agents that reduce B-cell proliferation, immune tolerization etc.

Approaches to Mitigate the Unwanted Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins during Drug Development
Laura I. Salazar-Fontana et al. (AAPS 2017: 19(2):377-385)

Abstract
All biotherapeutics have the potential to induce an immune response. This immunological response is complex and, in addition to antibody formation, involves T cell activation and innate immune responses that could contribute to adverse effects. Integrated immunogenicity data analysis is crucial to understanding the possible clinical consequences of anti-drug antibody (ADA) responses. Because patient- and product-related factors can influence the immunogenicity of a therapeutic protein, a risk-based approach is recommended and followed by most drug developers to provide insight over the potential harm of unwanted ADA responses. This paper examines mitigation strategies currently implemented and novel under investigation approaches used by drug developers. The review describes immunomodulatory regimens used in the clinic to mitigate deleterious ADA responses to replacement therapies for deficiency syndromes, such as hemophilia A and B, and high risk classical infantile Pompe patients (e.g., cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, rituximab); novel in silico and in vitro prediction tools used to select candidates based on their immunogenicity potential (e.g., anti-CD52 antibody primary sequence and IFN beta-1a formulation); in vitro generation of tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to reduce ADA responses to factor VIII and IX in murine models of hemophilia; and selection of novel delivery systems to reduce in vivo ADA responses to highly immunogenic biotherapeutics (e.g., asparaginase). We conclude that mitigation strategies should be considered early in development for biotherapeutics based on our knowledge of existing clinical data for biotherapeutics and the immune response involved in the generation of these ADAs.

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Mitigation strategy for Unwanted Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins Mitigation strategy for Unwanted Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins Reviewed by Biotechnology on November 04, 2019 Rating: 5

Taking immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins to the next level

November 03, 2019


Taking immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins to the next level
Büttel IC et al, Biologicals. 2011 Mar;39(2):100-9
Abstract
Therapeutic proteins provide innovative and effective therapies for numerous diseases. However, some of these products are associated with unwanted immunogenicity that may lead to clinical consequences such as reduced or loss of efficacy, altered pharmacokinetics (PK), general immune and hypersensitivity reactions, and neutralisation of the natural counterpart (e.g. the physiological hormone). Regulatory guidance on immunogenicity assessment needs to take into consideration a great diversity of products, indications and patient populations as well as constantly advancing manufacturing technologies. Such guidance needs to be sufficiently specific while, at the same time, allowing interactive discussion and adjusted benefit-risk weighing of each product on a case-by-case basis, e.g. for a unique treatment of a life threatening disease acceptable treatment risks may differ considerably from the ones in case of less serious disease. This theme was the focus of the international conference "Taking immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins to the next level", held at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut in Langen, Germany, on the 10-11. June 2010. The objectives of the conference were to highlight how the field could move from that of a mere description of risk factors to a system of risk assessment and mitigation, as well as an understanding of the impact of unwanted immunogenicity on the overall benefit/risk consideration for a medicinal product. More than 150 experts from industry, academia and regulatory authorities worldwide discussed the phenomenon of undesired immunogenicity from different perspectives. The conference focussed on issues relevant to three areas: (1) new European guidelines that are currently the subject of discussion; (2) testing strategies for immunogenicity assessment; and (3) scientific progress on the product-related factors that may contribute to the development of pathogenesis of immunogenicity, in particular in the field of protein aggregation and post-translational modifications. This report provides an overview of issues, insights, and conclusions that were discussed and achieved during the meeting.



Taking immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins to the next level Taking immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins to the next level Reviewed by Biotechnology on November 03, 2019 Rating: 5

Immunogenicity of biotherapeutics for biosimilars and biobetters.

November 03, 2019
Immunogenicity of biotherapeutics in the context of developing biosimilars and biobetters. 

Barbosa MD. Drug Discov Today. 2011 Apr;16(7-8):345-53.

Abstract
Issues concerning the approval of biosimilars are currently being addressed by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. There appears to be a consensus that immunogenicity impacts comparability studies and the interchangeability of biosimilars. In addition, preclinical immunogenicity assessment and mitigation, if validated in clinical studies, might impact patient safety and development costs, and also facilitate the development of 'biobetters' and other protein therapeutics. This review addresses recent advances in the field of biosimilars and focuses on predictive immunology, with an emphasis on preclinical immunogenicity assessments of protein therapeutics other than vaccines and their corresponding clinical outcomes.



Immunogenicity of biotherapeutics for biosimilars and biobetters. Immunogenicity of biotherapeutics for biosimilars and biobetters. Reviewed by Biotechnology on November 03, 2019 Rating: 5

Immunogenicity assessment of biotherapeutic products: An overview of assays and their utility.

November 03, 2019
Immunogenicity assessment of biotherapeutic products: An overview of assays and their utility.

Wadhwa M, Knezevic I, Kang HN, Thorpe R. Biologicals. 2015 Sep;43(5):298-306.  

Biotherapeutic products (BTPs) are the fastest growing medicines in the pharmaceutical market. Despite their clinical success, the immunogenicity of BTPs continues to be a major concern. Assessment of immunogenicity as well as appropriate interpretation of immunogenicity data is therefore, of critical importance for defining safety profile of these products for the purpose of their licensure and use. In the past decade, much progress has been made towards how immunogenicity should be studied. This article reflects the content of the brief presentation on principles of methods used for immunogenicity assessment and their merits and limitations given at the first World Health Organization (WHO) implementation workshop on rDNA derived biotherapeutic products held in the Republic of Korea in May 2014 to support the case studies on immunogenicity presented and discussed during the workshop. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the methods used for assessing immunogenicity of biotherapeutic products (BTPs) and the most important considerations in interpreting results in the context of a regulatory overview of these products.




Immunogenicity assessment of biotherapeutic products: An overview of assays and their utility. Immunogenicity assessment of biotherapeutic products: An overview of assays and their utility. Reviewed by Biotechnology on November 03, 2019 Rating: 5
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