Glomerular Function of Kidney: MCQ

The renal system covers the glomerular functiontubular functionacid-base homeostasis,  biochemical assessment,  and clinical correlations. The glomerulus is mainly involved in the filtration of the blood for the excretion of waste products while retaining most of the proteins. 
The renal tubules function in secretion, reabsorption, and excretion of electrolytes, ions, organic acids, urea. The renal tubules help regulate the osmolality, volume, and pH of the blood. 

Glomerular Function of Kidney
Multiple Choice Questions

1) The following are the endocrine function of the kidney, Except
a) Erythropoietin secretion
b) Synthesis of Vit D3
c) Synthesis of Prostaglandins
d) Synthesis of Angiotensin

2) Normally, proteins with a molecular weight higher than 65kda are retained in the plasma.
Some small size protein is filtered through the kidney by which of the following mechanism?
a) Protein channels
b) Endocytosis
c) Cotransport with Na+
d) None of the above

3) The rate of filtration in the kidney depends on..............................................
a) Glomerular Permeability
b) Capillary hydrostatic pressure
c) Oncotic pressure
d) All of the above

4) Which of the following factor increases the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
a) Antidiuretic hormone
b) Arterial Natriuretic peptide
c) Dopamine
d) Nitric oxide

5) Under the normal condition, the glomerular filtrate in the Bowman's capsule of nephron consists of the following, EXCEPT:
a) Proteins such as albumin and globulin
b) Metabolic waste products such as urea, creatinine
c) Amino Acids, Glucose, Organic Acids
d) Major electrolytes such as sodium, chloride, potassium, bicarbonate

6) The glomerular filtration rate is the rate at which fluid is filtered into Bowman's capsule and it is expressed in ml/min or liter/day. 
The GFR for healthy adults is 180 L/day which is equivalent to approximately...................................
a) 90 ml/min
b) 120 ml/min
c) 150 ml/min
d) 180 ml/min

7) The glomerular filtration rate is determined by the balance of hydrostatic and colloidal osmotic pressure. 
Which of the following promote glomerular filtration?
a) hydrostatic pressure of glomerular capillary
b) oncotic pressure of the glomerular capillary
c) hydrostatic pressure of Bowman's capsule
d) Oncotic pressure of Bowman's capsule

8) Choose the correct net filtration pressure when
            the hydrostatic pressure of glomerular capillary = 45 mmHg
            the oncotic pressure of the glomerular capillary = 25 mmHg
            the hydrostatic pressure of Bowman's capsule = 10 mmHg
            the oncotic pressure of Bowman's capsule = 0 mmHg


a) 5
b) 10
c) 15
d) 20

9) Increase in glomerular hydrostatic pressure and GFR is determined by
a) Increased arterial pressure
b) Decreased afferent arterial resistance
c) The moderate increase in efferent arterial resistance
d) All of the above

10) Which of the following hormones or autocoids increases the glomerular filtration rate by decreasing the vascular resistance?
a) Norepinephrine
b) Endothelin
c) Prostaglandin
d) Epinephrine

11) Which of the following chain of events promotes the secretion of renin from the kidney that in turn increases angiotensin II secretion and increases arterial resistance?


12) The Renal Plasma flow is best measured by…...................................?
a) Para-amino hippuric acid Test
b) GFR estimation
c) Inulin Clearance Test
d) Creatinine Clearance

13) What is Creatinine Clearance?
a) Is a sensitive marker for urolithiasis
b) Is a sensitive marker of tubular function
c) Is a sensitive marker of glomerular function
d) Is a sensitive marker for measurement of skeletal muscle mass

14) Proteinuria can be defined as the presence of protein in urine greater than which of the following value?
a) 30 mg/dl
b) 300mg/dl
c) 1 gm/dl
d) 3 gm/dl

15) Presence of myoglobin in urine signifies
a) Overload proteinuria
b) Tubular proteinuria
c) Glomerular proteinuria
d) Postrenal proteinuria

16)  The blood flow through the kidney is autoregulated with a myogenic response and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism. 
Which of the following statement is false regarding tubuloglomerular feedback?
a) Increased mean arterial pressure lead to an increase in renal blood flow and GFR
b) Increase delivery of sodium ions in macula densa increases renal blood flow and GFR
c) Decrease delivery of sodium ion in macula densa increases renal blow flow and GFR
d) All of the above

17) What is the filtration fraction (FF) when
Glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure = 45 mmHg 
Bowman's space hydrostatic pressure =25 mm/Hg 
Colloidal Osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries = 10 mmHg 
Glomerular capillary filtration coefficient (Kf)= 10ml/ mmHg
Renal plasma flow (RPF) = 500 ml/min
Hint: Filtration fraction (FF)= GFR/RPF

a) 0.15
b) 0.30
c) 0.25
d) 0.20

18) The stimulation of sympathetic neurons to the kidney causes the vasoconstriction of arterioles and has a greater effect on afferent arterioles. 
Which of the following is not the consequence of sympathetic neuron activation?
a) Decreased renal plasma flow and GFR
b) Decreased the hydrostatic pressure of glomerular capillaries
c) Decreased Plasma oncotic pressure
d) Increased Filtration fraction

19) The release of angiotensin causes constriction of afferent arterioles and has a greater effect on efferent arterioles. 
Which of the following is not the consequence of angiotensin release?
a) Increased renal plasma flow
b) Increased Glomerular filtration rate
c) Increased Filtration fraction
d) Increased plasma oncotic pressure

20) Which of the following statement is true regarding renal plasma flow?
a) The renal blood flow is approximately 25% of cardiac output
b) Vasoconstriction of renal arterioles leads to a decrease in renal blood flow
c) Vasodilatation of renal arterioles leads to an increase in renal blood flow
d) All of the above


Multiple Choice Answers:
1-d) Synthesis of Angiotensin
2-b) Endocytosis
3-d) All of the above
4-c) Dopamine
5-a) Proteins such as albumin and globulin
6-b) 120 ml/min
7-a) hydrostatic pressure of glomerular capillary 
8-b) 10
9-d) All of the above 
10-c) Prostaglandin
11-d
12-a) Para-amino hippuric acid Test
13-c) Is a sensitive marker of glomerular function
14-b) 300mg/dl
15-a) Overload proteinuria
16-b) Increase in delivery of sodium ions in macula densa increases renal blood flow and GFR
17-d) 0.20
18-c) Decreased Plasma oncotic pressure
19-a) Increased renal plasma flow
20-d) All of the above

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