MCQ on Vaccines, vaccination history: Medical Microbiology, Pharmacology

                                 MCQ with answers on Vaccines, vaccination history 

1) When was the smallpox virus first eradicated from the world?
a) 1945
b) 1960
c) 1970
d) 1980 

2) Antigens are vital components of vaccines, and to enhance immune response and prevent contamination, adjuvants or stabilizers are incorporated during the vaccine manufacturing process.
Name the least commonly used adjuvant used in vaccine development.
a) Formaldehyde 
b) Aluminum sulfate
c) Potassium aluminum sulfate
d) Aluminum hydroxide

3) Immunization is a crucial and efficient method for safeguarding individuals against various infectious diseases. It encompasses two primary categories: active and passive immunization.
All of the following statements are correct about the active and passive immunization process, Except?
a) Both can occur naturally as well as artificially
b) Active immunization is the inoculation of live, attenuated and dead pathogens
c) Both types of immunization may provide long-term protection to the immune system  
d) Administration of preformed antibodies in the form of passive immunization

4) Which of the following statement is Incorrect about the vaccine development process?
a) A vaccine consists of live attenuated or killed germ cells
b) Aluminum can be used as an adjuvant in a vaccine
c) Animal trials are not necessary for vaccines before going to the human trial 
d) An effective and safe vaccine production can take up to 10 to 15 years

5) Which of the following is Not an example of a live attenuated vaccine?
a) Tetanus vaccine 
b) MMR vaccine
c) Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine
d) Influenza vaccine

6) Subunit vaccine is all, Except
a) A whole purified virus 
b) A purified part or pieces of the antigen
c) An expensive type of vaccine
d) A Hepatitis-B vaccine

7) World health organization and Centers for disease control and prevention (WHO/CDC) recommends vaccination for children under six years of age to protect them from several infectious diseases. 
Which of the following vaccine does not come under the list of mandatory or recommended vaccines that should be administered during childhood?
a) Dtap (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis)
b) Polio
c) MMR
d) Hepatitis A and B
e) Rabies 

8) The first scientifically approved vaccine was......................................
a) Oral polio vaccine
b) Smallpox vaccine 
c) MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and rubella)
d) Tetanus vaccine

9) Which of the following type of vaccine is Food and Drug administration, USA (FDA) and WHO authorized COVID-19 vaccine?
a) Live attenuated     
b) mRNA vaccine   
c) Conjugated vaccine    
d) Toxoid vaccine        

10) Which of the following statement is incorrect about the Live attenuated vaccine?
a) It is prepared using whole weakened living bacteria or virus
b) It can generate a long-term immune response with the administration of a single dose
c) Measles, MMR, and oral polio vaccine are live attenuated vaccines
d) It is stable at normal room temperature 

11) Which of the following statement is false regarding the important characteristics of the safe and effective vaccine?
a) It must be safe and easy to use with low side effects in humans
b) It must provide immunity to at least 15% of the population 
c) It must be available at a low cost
d) It must provide long-lasting immunity

12) Which of the following statements accurately describes the phases of vaccine development?
a) Animal studies are performed to see the safety and effectiveness of vaccine candidate
b) Phase 1/2 clinical studies are conducted to see the safety of the candidate vaccine in humans
c) Phase 3 clinical studies are conducted to see the efficacy of the candidate vaccine in humans
d) All of the above 

13) Before the invention of the Polio vaccine in 1955, Poliomyelitis was a serious viral infection, it was a leading cause of death among children. 
Select the incorrect statement regarding the polio vaccine.
a) It is only present in the form of killed or inactivated vaccine 
b) Live virus vaccine against poliovirus can be given orally
c) The doses of vaccines must be given before children turn 6 years of age
d) It is present in two forms, oral polio vaccine and inactivated polio vaccine
e) Adults traveling to polio-risk regions should get vaccinated
14) Influenza, or the flu, is a common occurrence worldwide, with a significant number of cases each year. While most individuals experience mild symptoms, a notable portion requires hospitalization due to severe illness, and thousands of flu-related deaths are reported annually.
Vacinnation is the most important preventive strategy against flu.
Select all the correct answers about the flu vaccination:
a) In the USA, it is recommended from 6 months of age, two times every year 
b) Flu vaccines may contain killed viruses or weakened viruses 
c) Flu vaccines are mainly available in two forms, shots and nasal spray 
d) Annual vaccination is recommended due to the mutating nature of the virus
e) The immune system gets activated 2-3 weeks after an individual is vaccinated 

15) Vaccination during childhood have proven to protect humans from several infectious diseases, including life-threatening infections like smallpox and polio. 
Which of the following diseases can be prevented by vaccination during the childhood? 
Select all the correct answers from the options given below:
a) Chickenpox
c) Diphtheria   
d) COVID-19
e) Polio 
f) Tetanus

16) The initial COVID-19 vaccine was granted approval for emergency distribution in Europe and the United States in December 2020. Please identify the first biotechnology firm to receive this authorization?
a) Moderna
b) Pfizer-BioNTech
e) Johnson and Johnson

17) Which of the following age group is eligible and are recommended to get the Hepatitis B vaccination?
a) Infants
b) 18 and younger
c) Person injecting drugs
d) None of the above

18) Which of the following type of vaccine did the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech developed for COVID-19?
a) mRNA vaccine
b) Subunit vaccine
c) Toxoid vaccine
d) Vector-borne vaccine

19) Human papillomavirus associated cervical, vaginal and anal cancers occur worldwide. 
At what age the first dose of HPV vaccine is recommended?
a) Infants
b) 5 year old
c) 10 year old
d) 60 and above

20) Louis Pasteur first studied the efficacy of the 'anthrax' vaccine by treating the virus with carbolic acid and administering it in...............................
a) A pregnant woman
b) Rats
c) Livestock
d) A healthy boy

21) "Spanish flu" (Influenza) was first reported in 1918, when was the vaccine for influenza discovered?
a) 1940s
b) 1950s
c) 1920s
d) 2000s

22) Which of the following vaccines comes under the list of vaccines that are recommended by health agencies and medical centers for pregnant women? 
Select all the correct answers:
a) Oral polio vaccine
b) Influenza vaccine during flu season
c) Tdap vaccine (tetanus, diptheria and pertussis)
d) Hepatitis A and B vaccine for those who are at risk

23) All of the following vaccines are examples of the recombinant type vaccines that are currently used in developed countries, Except?
a) Vaccine for hepatitis B
b) Vaccine for human papillomavirus
c) Vaccine against Haemophilus influenza b
d) Vaccine against hepatitis A

24) Choose the correct answer, and name all the important vaccines which help to protect against major infectious diseases?
a) MMR vaccine
b) Hepatitis B vaccine
c) Flu vaccine
d) Polio vaccine
e) Tetanus vaccine
f) Pertussis vaccine

25) With the exception of which vaccine, the CDC and WHO advise and mandate the administration of all the following vaccines before traveling to countries such as India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Africa?
a) Hepatitis A and B 
b) Typhoid vaccine
c) COVID-19
d) Tetanus 
e) Malaria

26) Select the incorrect statement regarding the inactivated type of vaccines:
a) Prepared by using heat or radiation for the inactivation of toxins of the microbe
b) Most effective against bacterial pathogens but less on viral pathogens
c) Poliovirus and Hepatitis A are common inactivated vaccines
d) Prepared by using heat or radiation for the inactivation of the microbe

27) The BCG vaccine used for the prevention of tuberculosis is derived from which of the following microorganism?
a) Bordetella pertussis
b) Bacillus subtilis
c) Mycobacterium bovis
d) Saccharomyces cerevisiae

28) A potential new vaccine is in the developmental phase which could be the preventive or therapeutic vaccine against HIV. 
Name the vaccine which is in the first phase of the developmental process.
a) Recombinant Na-GST-1
b) Recombinant gp120
c) Marburg DNA plasmid
d) Live attenuated HIV

29)Ebola virus disease is a contagious disease and outbreaks have increased in higher numbers throughout the African region since it was first diagnosed. 
When was the first vaccine against the Ebola virus authorized and approved by the Food and Drug administration, USA (FDA)?
a) 2021
b) 2018
c) 2010
d) 2019 

30) The most widely used vaccines for cholera and typhoid are the killed type. When were the first vaccines for cholera and typhoid made available to the public?
a) the 1790s
b) the 1890s
c) the 1920s
d)the 1970s

31. What is the typical route of administration for most vaccines?
a) Intramuscular injection
b) Intravenous infusion
c) Oral ingestion
d) Topical application

1. d)1980. For more information on smallpox vaccine please visit WHO website (

2. a)Formaldehyde. Adjuvants helps boost immune response and the vaccine to work better in people who receive the vaccine. 

3. c)Both types of immunization may provide long term protection to the immune system 

4. c)Animal trials are not necessary for vaccines before going to the human trial 

5. a)Tetanus vaccine. The toxin of Clostridium tetani is inactivated by formaldehyde treatment to produce antigens.
6. a)A whole purified virus 
7. e)Rabies. Rabies vaccine is given soon after the individual/person is exposed to the virus.

8. b)Smallpox vaccine. First methods for controlling smallpox was variolation, a process named after the virus that causes smallpox (variola virus). The basis for vaccination began in 1796 when the English doctor Edward Jenner noticed that milkmaids who had gotten cowpox were protected from smallpox. (Reference-

9. b)mRNA vaccine. It is a vaccine that delivers instructions to the cell to produce viral proteins.

10. d)It is stable at normal room temperature 
11. b)It must provide immunity to at least 15% of the population 
12. d)All of the above 
13. a)It is only present in the form of killed or inactivated vaccine
14. a), b), c), d), e)
15. a), c), e), and f)
16. b)Pfizer-BioNTech
17. a), b) and c)
18. a)mRNA vaccine
19.c) 10 year old, first dose of HPV vaccine can be given at 10-12 years of age, not recommended after 25 years of age.

20. c)Livestock
21. a) the 1940s

22. b)Influenza vaccine during flu season
c) Tdap vaccine (tetanus, Diptheria, and pertussis), and
d) Hepatitis A and B vaccine for those who are at risk
The oral polio vaccine (OPV) is an example of a live attenuated vaccine, it can damage the fetus. Thus OPV is not recommended for pregnant women

23-d)Vaccine against hepatitis A
24-a), b), c), d), e) and f)
25-e) Malaria  (there is no vaccine available for malaria)
26-a)Prepared by using heat or radiation for the inactivation of toxins of the microbe
27-c) Mycobacterium bovis
28-b)Recombinant gp120
29-d) 2019
30-b) the 1890s. In 1872, Louis Pasteur developed first laboratory produced vaccine for cholera in chickens.
31- a) Intramuscular injection


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