MCQ on Vaccines: Medical Microbiology

1) When was the smallpox virus first eradicated from the world?
a) 1990
b) 1960
c) 1970
d) 1980 

2) Antigen is an important constituent of the vaccines, to avoid contamination and increase the immune response, a component such as adjuvant/stabilizer is added during the manufacturing process of a vaccine. Name the least commonly used adjuvant?
a) Formaldehyde 
b) Aluminum sulfate
c) Potassium aluminum sulfate
d) Aluminum hydroxide

3) Immunization is an important and effective way to protect humans from different types of infectious diseases. The two main types of immunizations are active and passive immunization. All of the following statements are correct about the active and passive immunization process, Except?
a) Both can occur naturally as well as artificially
b) Active immunization is the inoculation of live, attenuated and dead pathogens
c) Both types of immunization may provide long term protection to the immune system  
d) Administration of preformed antibodies are the form of passive immunization

4) Which of the following statement is Incorrect about the vaccine development process?
a) A vaccine consists of live attenuated or killed germ cells
b) Aluminum can be used as an adjuvant in a vaccine
c) Animal trials are not necessary for vaccines before going to the human trial 
d) An effective and safe vaccine production can take up to 10 to 15 years

5) Which of the following is Not the example of a live attenuated vaccine?
a) Tetanus vaccine 
b) MMR vaccine
c) Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine
d) Influenza vaccine

6) Subunit vaccine is all, Except
a) A whole purified virus 
b) A purified part or pieces of the antigen
c) An expensive type of vaccine
d) A Hepatitis-B vaccine

7) WHO/CDC recommends vaccination of children under six years of age to protect themselves from several infectious diseases. Which of the following vaccine does not comes under the list of mandatory or recommended vaccines that should be administered during childhood?
a) Dtap (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis)
b) Polio
c) MMR
d) Hepatitis A and B
e) Rabies 

8) The first scientifically approved vaccine was................
a) Oral polio vaccine
b) Smallpox vaccine 
c) MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and rubella)
d) Tetanus vaccine

9) Which of the following type of FDA/WHO authorized vaccines are proven to be effective and safe against the COVID-19?
a) Live attenuated     
b) mRNA vaccine   
c) Conjugated vaccine    
d) Toxoid vaccine        

10) Which of the following statement is incorrect about the Live attenuated vaccine?
a) It is prepared using whole weakened living bacteria or virus
b) It can generate a long-term immune response with the administration of a single dose
c) Measles, MMR, and oral polio vaccine are live attenuated vaccines
d) It is stable at normal room temperature 

11) Which of the following statement is false regarding the important characteristics of the safe and effective vaccine?
a) It must be safe and easy to use with low side effects in humans
b) It must provide immunity to at least 15% of the population 
c) It must be available at a low cost
d) It must provide long-lasting immunity

12) Numerous biotechnology industries are fast-tracking the development of vaccines for COVID-19. Which of the following statement is true regarding the stages of vaccine development?
a) Animal studies are performed to see the safety and effectiveness of vaccine candidate
b) Phase 1/2 clinical studies are conducted to see the safety of the candidate vaccine in humans
c) Phase 3 clinical studies are conducted to see the efficacy of the candidate vaccine in humans
d) All of the above 

13) Before the invention of the Polio vaccine in 1955, Poliomyelitis was a serious viral infection. Thousands of children got infected and died around the world, select the incorrect statement about the polio vaccine?
a) It is only present in the form of killed or inactivated vaccine 
b) Live virus vaccine against poliovirus can be given orally
c) The doses of vaccines must be given before children turn 6 years of age
d) It is present in two forms, oral polio vaccine and inactivated polio vaccine
e) Adults traveling to polio risk regions should get vaccinated
14) Numerous cases of influenza/flu are seen each year around the world, although symptoms of the flu are usually mild, a number of people are hospitalized with serious illness, and thousands of deaths are recorded every year. The most important preventive measure through which a person can prevent the flu is vaccination, select all the correct answers about the flu vaccination 
a) In the USA, it is recommended from 6 months of age, two times every year 
b) Flu vaccines may contain killed viruses or weakened viruses 
c) Flu vaccines are mainly available in two forms, shots and nasal spray 
d) Annual vaccination is recommended due to the mutating nature of the virus
e) The immune system gets activated 2-3 weeks after an individual is vaccinated 

15) Vaccination at an early age can protect humans from several infectious diseases, including life-threatening infections like smallpox and polio. Which of the following diseases are prevented by vaccination during childhood? Select all the correct answers from the options given below
a) Polio 
c) Diphtheria   
d) COVID-19
e) Ebola
f) Chickenpox

16) In December 2020 first vaccine for COVID-19 was approved in Europe and in the USA, name the first biotechnology company which received the emergency authorization to distribute the vaccine?
a) Moderna
b) Pfizer-BioNTech
e) Johnson and Johnson

17) Which of the following age group are an important age group who require the Hepatitis B vaccination?
a) Infants
b) 18 and younger
c) Person injecting drugs
d) None of the above

18) Which of the following type of vaccines did the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech companies design for COVID-19?
a) mRNA vaccine
b) Subunit vaccine
c) Toxoid vaccine
d) Vector-borne vaccine

19) It has been reported that thousands of women worldwide are affected by cervical cancer and equal numbers of men contract sexually transmitted disease annually. Which of the following virus is the common microorganism that is associated with cervical, vaginal and anal cancers?
a) Chlamydia trachomatis
b) Treponema pallidum
c) Hepatitis B virus
d) Human papillomavirus

20) Louis Pasteur first studied the efficacy of the 'anthrax' vaccine by treating the virus with carbolic acid and administering it in....................
a) A pregnant woman
b) Rats
c) Livestock
d) A healthy boy

21) "Spanish flu" (Influenza) was first reported in 1918, when was the vaccine for influenza discovered?
a) 1940s
b) 1950s
c) 1920s
d) 2000s

22) History of vaccines have been first traced hundreds of years ago in China for smallpox, which of the following term was suggested for the vaccination technique during that time?
a) Immunization
b) Variolation
c)  Injection
d) All of the above

23) All of the following vaccines are examples of the recombinant type vaccines that are currently used in developed countries, Except?
a) Vaccine for hepatitis B
b) Vaccine for human papillomavirus
c) Vaccine against Haemophilus influenza b
d) Vaccine against hepatitis A

24) Choose the correct answer, name all the important vaccines which help to protect against major infectious diseases?
a) MMR vaccine
b) Hepatitis B vaccine
c) Flu vaccine
d) Polio vaccine
e) Tetanus vaccine
f) Pertussis vaccine

25) All of the following vaccines are recommended and required by CDC/WHO before traveling to countries like India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Africa, Except? 
a) Hepatitis A and B 
b) Typhoid vaccine
c) COVID-19
d) Tetanus 
e) Malaria

26) Select the incorrect statement regarding the inactivated type of vaccines
a) Prepared by using heat or radiation for the inactivation of toxins of the microbe
b) Most effective against bacterial pathogen but less on viral pathogens
c) Poliovirus and Hepatitis A are common inactivated vaccines
d) Prepared by using heat or radiation for the inactivation of the microbe

27) The BCG vaccine used for the prevention of tuberculosis is derived from which of the following microorganism?
a) Bordetella pertussis
b) Bacillus subtilis
c) Mycobacterium bovis
d) Saccharomyces cerevisiae

28) A potential new vaccine is in the developmental phase that could be the preventive or therapeutic vaccine against HIV, name the vaccine which is in the first phase of the developmental process?
a) Recombinant Na-GST-1
b) Recombinant gp120
c) Marburg DNA plasmid
d) Live attenuated HIV

29)Ebola virus disease is a contagious disease and outbreaks of the disease have increased in higher numbers through the African region since it was first diagnosed. When did the FDA authorize and approve the first vaccine against the Ebola virus?
a) 2021
b) 2018
c) 2010
d) 2019 

30)Most widely used vaccines for 'cholera' and 'typhoid' are the killed type of vaccines, in which of the following year these vaccines were available to the public?
a) the 1890s
b) the 1950s
c) the 1920s
d) the 1850s

1. d)1980 
2. a)Formaldehyde 
3. c)Both types of immunization may provide long term protection to the immune system 
4. c)Animal trials are not necessary for vaccines before going to the human trial 
5. a)Tetanus vaccine 
6. a)A whole purified virus 
7. e)Rabies
8. b)Smallpox vaccine 
9. b)mRNA vaccine 
10. d)It is stable at normal room temperature 
11. b)It must provide immunity to at least 15% of the population 
12. d)All of the above 
13. a)It is only present in the form of killed or inactivated vaccine
14. a), b), c), d), e)
15. a), c), f)
16. b)Pfizer-BioNTech
17. a), b) and c)
18. a)mRNA vaccine
19.d)Human papillomavirus
20. c)Livestock
21. a) the 1940s
22. c)Injection
23-d)Vaccine against hepatitis A
24-a), b), c), d), e) and f)
25-e) Malaria  (there is no vaccine available for malaria)
26-a)Prepared by using heat or radiation for the inactivation of toxins of the microbe
27-c) Mycobacterium bovis
28-b)Recombinant gp120
29-d) 2019
30-a) the 1890s

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