MCQ on Upper and lower respiratory tract infections - Pneumonia, flu and other respiratory infections

Multiple Choice Questions in Upper and lower respiratory tract infections - microorganisms related to flu, pneumonia, COPD and other respiratory tract infections

1) A 69-year-old woman with a history of high blood pressure for more than 25 years and arthritis for last 3 years visited the hospital during the flu season and have common cold like symptoms with mild cough, chest pain, fever, and body aches for the last 4 days. 
A sputum sample was taken for the laboratory diagnosis, chest radiography was performed and lobar pneumonia was suspected. Round diplococcus colonies in chains were isolated from the lab culture of the specimen. 
Which of the following bacteria could be the possible pathogen?
a) Neisseria gonorrhoeae
b) Haemophilus influenzae
c) Streptococcus pneumoniae   
d) Bordetella pertussis

2) A premature male newborn baby born in Punjab hospital, India with a low birth weight had a breastfeeding difficulties and have sucking problem, he was immediately admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). After a week long stay in the intensive care, baby experience a breathing difficulties and showed flu like symptoms. A blood specimen was taken for laboratory examination, microscopic examination showed gram-negative non motile bacilli, routine culture was done and non-hemolytic colonies appeared on the plate after a few days of culture incubation. 
Name the possible pathogen that is responsible for majority of hospital acquired pneumonia and is one of the leading cause of nosocomial outbreak
a) Streptococcus pneumoniae
b) Klebsiella pneumoniae      
c) Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV)
d) Legionella pneumophila

3) Name the common respiratory pathogen which is naturally present in the environment and has been found to live in the natural water sources and soil?
a) Streptococcus pneumoniae
b) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
c) Moraxella catarrhalis
d) Legionella pneumophila         

4) All of the following statements regarding Mycoplasma pneumonia are true, Except?
a) It lacks a cell wall
b) A causative agent of "atypical pneumonia" in humans
c) A pleomorphic and the smallest free-living microorganism
d) It can be cultivated in regular nutrient agar media 

5) Which of the following gram-negative aerobic bacteria causes one of the major respiratory tract infections, most commonly the nasopharynx, and is responsible for the infection of "otitis media" in children?
a) Bordetella pertussis
b) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
c) Moraxella catarrhalis         
d) Yersinia pestis

6) "Whooping cough" in children is caused by which of the following pathogen?
a) Streptococcus pneumoniae
b) Bordetella pertussis         
c) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
d) Mycoplasma pneumoniae

7) A 10-month-old baby boy was admitted to the hospital with breathing difficulties, high-grade fever, runny nose, and a dry cough. A physical examination and chest X-ray were performed. Swab samples were taken from the nasal area and blood sample was also taken, no respiratory bacterial pathogen was detected from the swab specimen and the blood specimen thus viral infection was suspected.
Name the most common respiratory viral pathogen that is a major cause of bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in infants and young children?
a) Coronavirus
b) Bordetella pertussis
c)Herpes simplex virus
d)Streptococcus pyogenes 
e) Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)   

8) All of the following are the most common pathogens that can cause pharyngitis/sore throat, Except?
a) Corynebacterium diphtheriae
b) Streptococcus pyogenes
c)  Herpes Simplex virus  
d) Adenovirus
e) Candida albicans 

9) A 4-year-old child developed symptoms of a common cold, after 2 days the cough started sounding similar to an animal bark. He was taken to the hospital on the third day with persistent fever and louder breathing sounds. 
The area below the chin appear to be swollen during the physical examination, which of the following could be the possible pathogen?
a) Haemophilus influenzae
b) Rhinovirus
c) Parainfluenza virus       
d) Mycobacterium tuberculosis

10) All of the following statements are correct about the characteristics of chronic "sinusitis", Except?
a) Cold and cough that lasts for more than a month can cause viral or bacterial sinusitis
b) The infection can occur in all ages 
c) Common cold, smoking, and seasonal allergies are the common risk factors
d) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacteria that cause sinusitis   

11) Which of the following pathogen is the most common cause of "bronchiolitis" in infants?
a) Respiratory Syncytial virus      
b) Herpes simplex virus
c) Coxsackievirus
d) Rhinovirus

12) All of the following pathogens can cause bacterial pneumonia in humans, Except
a) SARS-CoV-2
b) Streptococcus pneumoniae   
c) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
d) Pneumocystis jirovecii        
e) Respiratory syncytial virus

13) Which of the following fungal pathogen is prevalent in different states of America and can cause flu-like symptoms, also known as "valley fever"?
a) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
b) Coccidioides immitis     
c) Histoplasma capsulatum
d) Bordetella pertussis

14) It is reported that millions of people die from influenza each year around the world from different types of influenza variants.
All of the following strains are examples of important zoonotic influenza that have been found to spread widely in the large human population, Except?
a) H1N1
b) H5N1
c) H3N2
d) None of the above    

15) Which of the following pathogen have been found to cause the majority of nosocomial/hospital-acquired pneumonia in patients?
a) Streptococcus pneumonia
b) Escherichia coli
c) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
d)Yersinia pestis
e) Acinetobacter baumannii
f) Neisseria meningitidis

16) In  April 2021 India was hit by the second wave of COVID-19, and thousands of people died with the emergence of coronavirus variants. 
Opportunistic fungal respiratory infections appeared in numerous COVID patients, name the most possible pathogen found to be linked with the fungal infections?
a) Candida spp
b) Nocardia asteroides
c) Cladosporium cladosprioides
d) Aspergillus spp
e) Blastomyces spp

17) Which of the following pathogen is found to be less likely associated with children having a lung infection called cystic fibrosis?
a) Bacillus anthracis
b) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
c) Yersinia pestis
d) Staphylococcus aureus

18) All of the following methods are the common preventive measures taken to reduce the transmission of respiratory infections during the flu season, Except?
a) Avoiding close contact with the infected persons
b) Providing flu vaccine to only the people who have respiratory illnesses
c) Covering the face and nose while sneezing and coughing
d) Maintaining clean hygiene habits, washing hands regularly
e) Using the disinfectants and sanitizers regularly

19) Name the type of disease that can be easily transmitted by airborne droplets from one person to the other. Select all the correct options;
a) Diptheria
b) Pneumonic plague
c) Tuberculosis
d) Bubonic plague
e) Covid-19
f) Anthrax

20) Select the incorrect statement regarding respiratory infections flu (seasonal flu) and the common cold
a) The cold symptoms are usually milder than flu
b) Rhinovirus is the most causative agent of the common cold
c) Flu vaccination is recommended annually for 6 months age and older
d) There are no antiviral drugs available for the treatment of flu 

21) The common route for the transmission of bacterial meningitis is through saliva, although not highly contagious, the infection can be severe and even cause death. 
Name the causative pathogen of the disease
a) Stachybotrys chartarum
b) Neisseria meningitidis
c) Group A Streptococci
d) Yersinia pestis

22) According to the CDC the most contagious respiratory viral pathogen in 2021 was found to be one of the following viruses?
Name the possible virus
a) Sars Cov
b) Adenovirus
c) Covid-19 Delta variant
d) Haemophilus influenza type b

23) Select all the correct answers, respiratory diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans
a) Candidiasis
b) Brucellosis
c) Tularemia
d) Anthrax

24) Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death around the world each year, there are vaccines available to the public that can prevent viral or bacterial pathogens. 
Which of the following category of a person is less likely to get pneumonia?
a) A healthy 25-year-old woman who is 14 weeks pregnant
b) A 70-year-old diabetic male staying in a hospital for more than a week
c) A 35-year-old male who is an avid cigarette smoker
d) A 18-month-old baby without any preexisting medical conditions

25) Which of the following test method is less likely used in the routine diagnostic methods for acute respiratory illnesses?
a)  Chest X-ray
b) Nasal/throat swab specimen
c) Sputum specimen
d) Urine specimen 

26) One of the major cause of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is..............................................?
a) High blood pressure
b) Drinking
c) Smoking
d) Overeating

1- c)Streptococcus pneumoniae  
2- b)Klebsiella pneumoniae  
3- d)Legionella pneumophila   
4- d)It can be cultivated in regular nutrient agar media 
5- c)Moraxella catarrhalis  
6- b)Bordetella pertussis   
7- e)Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
8- e)Candida albicans 
9- c)Parainfluenza virus
10- d)Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacteria that cause sinusitis   
11- a)Respiratory Syncytial virus
12- a)SARS-CoV-2   d)Pneumocystis jirovecii and, e)Respiratory syncytial virus
13- b)Coccidioides immitis 
14- d)
15- c)Pseudomonas aeruginosa
16)-d) Aspergillus spp
17)-a)Bacillus anthracis
18- b)Providing flu vaccine to only the people who have respiratory illnesses
19- a), b), c) and e)
20- d) There are no antiviral drugs for the treatment of flu
21- b)Neisseria meningitidis
22- c)Covid-19 Delta variant
23-b), c), and d)
24-a) A healthy 25-year-old woman who is 14 weeks pregnant
25-d) Urine specimen
26- c) Smoking


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