MCQ on Respiratory Tract pathogens (bacteria, virus, fungi) - (Medical Microbiology)

The common pathogens of  the Upper and lower respiratory tract infection

1) A 69 year old woman with a history of high blood pressure for more than 25 years and arthritis for 3 years comes to the hospital with a cold, cough, and fever from the last 5 days. Although her cold was mild, she was suffering from a bad cough, chest pain, fever, and body aches. A sputum sample was taken for the laboratory diagnosis, chest radiography was performed and lobar pneumonia is suspected. The specimen was cultured, round diplococcus colonies in chains were observed under the microscope. Which of the following bacteria could be the possible pathogen?
a) Neisseria gonorrhoeae
b) Haemophilus influenzae
c) Streptococcus pneumoniae   
d) Bordetella pertussis

2) A premature male newborn baby born in Punjab hospital in India with low birth weight had a breathing problem and flu like symptoms, he was immediately admitted to the NICU. Blood specimen was taken for laboratory examination, microscopic examination showed gram-negative bacilli, routine culture was done and non-hemolytic colonies appeared on the plate after few days of incubation. Name the possible pathogen? 
a) Streptococcus pneumoniae
b) Klebsiella pneumoniae      
c) Haemophilus influenzae
d) Legionella pneumophila

3) Name the common respiratory pathogen which is naturally present in the environment and has been found to live in the natural water sources and soil?
a) Streptococcus pneumoniae
b) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
c) Moraxella catarrhalis
d) Legionella pneumophila         

4) All of the following statements regarding Mycoplasma pneumonia are true, Except?
a) It lacks a cell wall
b) A causative agent of "atypical pneumonia" in humans
c) A pleomorphic and the smallest free living microorganism
d) It can be isolated from regular agar media 

5) Which of the following gram negative pathogen causes one of the major respiratory tract infections, most commonly the nasopharynx, and is responsible for the infection "otitis media" in children?
a) Bordetella pertussis
b) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
c) Moraxella catarrhalis         
d) Yersinia pestis

6) "Whooping cough" in children is caused by which of the following pathogen?
a) Streptococcus pneumoniae
b) Bordetella pertussis         
c) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
d) Mycoplasma pneumoniae

7) A 10 months old baby boy is admitted to the hospital with breathing difficulties, the mother said he has a runny nose and dry cough for 2 days with a fever of 100 to 101 degrees Celsius. No other symptoms were identified, physical examination and chest X-ray was performed. In swab specimen and blood specimen, no bacterial pathogen was detected thus viral pneumonia was suspected. Name the possible pathogen which is a major cause of death in infants under two years of age from respiratory infection?
a) Coronavirus
b) Bordetella pertussis
c)Herpes simplex virus
d)Streptococcus pyogenes 
e) Respiratory syncytial virus    

8) All of the following are the common pathogens which cause pharyngitis/sore throat, Except?
a) Corynebacterium diphtheriae
b) Streptococcus pyogenes
c)  Herpes Simplex virus  
d) Adenovirus
e) Candida albicans 

9) A 4 year old child developed a symptoms of common cold, after 2 days the symptoms worsened and he developed a loud cough with a bark like sound with a persistent fever. He is presented to the hospital the third day since the symptoms first started, when examined by the physician the area below the chin seemed to be swollen with a louder than normal breathing sound. Which of the following could be the possible pathogen?
a) Haemophilus influenzae
b) Rhinovirus
c) Parainfluenza virus       
d) Mycobacterium tuberculosis

10) All of the following statements are correct about the characteristics of chronic "sinusitis", Except?
a) The symptoms of cold more than a month with purulent nasal discharge 
b) The bacterial infection can occur when not treated properly
c) The infection is very common occurring in people of all age around the world
d) The most common community-acquired sinusitis pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa      

11) Which of the following pathogen is the most common cause of "bronchiolitis" in infants?
a) Respiratory Syncytial virus      
b) Herpes simplex virus
c) Coxsackievirus
d) Rhinovirus

12) Which of the following pathogen/pathogens is Not the gram negative bacteria that can cause pneumonia in humans? Select all the correct answer
a) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
b) SARS-CoV-2
c) Streptococcus pneumoniae   
d) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
e) Pneumocystis jirovecii        
f) Respiratory syncytial virus

13) Which of the following is the most common respiratory pathogen that causes the "valley fever" occurring in different states of America?
a) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
b) Coccidioides immitis     
c) Histoplasma capsulatum
d) Bordetella pertussis

14) It is reported that millions of people die from influenza around the world annually, there are different strains of the influenza virus. All of the given strains are examples of important zoonotic influenza that already have been found to transmit and spread widely in the large human population, Except?
a) H1N1
b) H5N1
c) H3N2
d) None of the above    

15) Which of the following pathogen have been found to cause the majority of nosocomial/hospital-acquired pneumonia in patients?
a) Streptococcus pneumonia
b) Escherichia coli
c) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
d)Yersinia pestis
e) Acinetobacter baumannii
f) Neisseria meningitidis

16) In  April 2021 India was hit by second wave of COVID-19, thousands of people died with the emergence variants. Other infections such as fungal respiratory infection was seen in COVID patients,  Name the most possible pathogen found to be linked with the fungal infections.
a) Candida spp
b) Nocardia asteroides
c) Cladosporium cladosprioides
d) Aspergillus spp
e) Blastomyces spp

17) Which of the following pathogen is found to be less likely associated with the children having a lung infection called cystic fibrosis?
a) Bacillus anthracis
b) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
c) Yersinia pestis
d) Staphylococcus aureus

18) All of the following methods are the common preventive measures to reduce the transmission of respiratory infections, Except?
a) Avoiding close contact with the infected persons
b) Vaccinating the sick persons only for the respiratory illness
c) Covering the face and nose while sneezing and coughing
d) Maintaining the clean hygene habits, washing hands regularly
e) Using the disinfectants and sanitizers regularly

1- c)Streptococcus pneumoniae  
2- b)Klebsiella pneumoniae  
3- d)Legionella pneumophila   
4- d)
5- c)
6- b)
7- e)
8- e)
9- c)
10- d)
11- a)
12- c) and e)
13- b)
14- d)
15- c)Pseudomonas aeruginosa
16)-d) Aspergillus spp
17)-a)Bacillus anthracis
18- b)Vaccinating the sick persons only for the respiratory illness

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