MCQ on Respiratory Tract pathogens - bacteria, virus and fungi

The common pathogens of  the Upper and lower respiratory tract infection

1) A 69-year-old woman with a history of high blood pressure for more than 25 years and arthritis for 3 years comes to the hospital with a cold, cough, and fever from the last 5 days. Although her cold was mild, she was suffering from a bad cough, chest pain, fever, and body aches. A sputum sample was taken for the laboratory diagnosis, chest radiography was performed and lobar pneumonia is suspected. The specimen was cultured, round diplococcus colonies in chains were observed under the microscope. Which of the following bacteria could be the possible pathogen?
a) Neisseria gonorrhoeae
b) Haemophilus influenzae
c) Streptococcus pneumoniae   
d) Bordetella pertussis

2) A premature male newborn baby born in Punjab hospital in India with low birth weight had a breathing problem and flu-like symptoms, he was immediately admitted to the NICU. Blood specimen was taken for laboratory examination, microscopic examination showed gram-negative bacilli, routine culture was done and non-hemolytic colonies appeared on the plate after few days of incubation. Name the possible pathogen? 
a) Streptococcus pneumoniae
b) Klebsiella pneumoniae      
c) Haemophilus influenzae
d) Legionella pneumophila

3) Name the common respiratory pathogen which is naturally present in the environment and has been found to live in the natural water sources and soil?
a) Streptococcus pneumoniae
b) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
c) Moraxella catarrhalis
d) Legionella pneumophila         

4) All of the following statements regarding Mycoplasma pneumonia are true, Except?
a) It lacks a cell wall
b) A causative agent of "atypical pneumonia" in humans
c) A pleomorphic and the smallest free-living microorganism
d) It can be cultivated in regular nutrient agar media 

5) Which of the following gram-negative aerobic bacteria causes one of the major respiratory tract infections, most commonly the nasopharynx, and is responsible for the infection "otitis media" in children?
a) Bordetella pertussis
b) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
c) Moraxella catarrhalis         
d) Yersinia pestis

6) "Whooping cough" in children is caused by which of the following pathogen?
a) Streptococcus pneumoniae
b) Bordetella pertussis         
c) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
d) Mycoplasma pneumoniae

7) A 10-month-old baby boy is admitted to the hospital with breathing difficulties, high-grade fever, runny nose, and a dry cough. A physical examination and chest X-ray were performed. No respiratory bacterial pathogen was detected from the swab specimen and blood specimen, thus viral pneumonia was suspected. Name the most possible pathogen that is a major cause of death in infants under two years of age from respiratory illness?
a) Coronavirus
b) Bordetella pertussis
c)Herpes simplex virus
d)Streptococcus pyogenes 
e) Respiratory syncytial virus    

8) All of the following are the most common pathogens that cause pharyngitis/sore throat, Except?
a) Corynebacterium diphtheriae
b) Streptococcus pyogenes
c)  Herpes Simplex virus  
d) Adenovirus
e) Candida albicans 

9) A 4-year-old child developed symptoms of common cold, after 2 days the cough started sounding like an animal bark. He is taken to the hospital on the third day, he has persistent fever and louder breathing sounds. When examined by the physician the area below the chin seemed to be swollen, which of the following could be the possible pathogen?
a) Haemophilus influenzae
b) Rhinovirus
c) Parainfluenza virus       
d) Mycobacterium tuberculosis

10) All of the following statements are correct about the characteristics of chronic "sinusitis", Except?
a) Cold and cough that lasts for more than a month can cause viral or bacterial sinusitis
b) The infection can occur in all ages 
c) Common cold, smoking, and seasonal allergies are the common risk factors
d) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen that causes sinusitis   

11) Which of the following pathogen is the most common cause of "bronchiolitis" in infants?
a) Respiratory Syncytial virus      
b) Herpes simplex virus
c) Coxsackievirus
d) Rhinovirus

12) All of the following pathogens can cause bacterial pneumonia in humans? Except
a) SARS-CoV-2
b) Streptococcus pneumoniae   
c) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
d) Pneumocystis jirovecii        
e) Respiratory syncytial virus

13) Which of the following is the most common respiratory pathogen that causes the "valley fever" occurring in different states of America?
a) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
b) Coccidioides immitis     
c) Histoplasma capsulatum
d) Bordetella pertussis

14) It is reported that millions of people die from influenza around the world annually, there are different strains of the influenza virus. All of the given strains are examples of important zoonotic influenza that have been found to transmit and spread widely in the large human population, Except?
a) H1N1
b) H5N1
c) H3N2
d) None of the above    

15) Which of the following pathogen have been found to cause the majority of nosocomial/hospital-acquired pneumonia in patients?
a) Streptococcus pneumonia
b) Escherichia coli
c) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
d)Yersinia pestis
e) Acinetobacter baumannii
f) Neisseria meningitidis

16) In  April 2021 India was hit by the second wave of COVID-19, thousands of people died with the emergence of coronavirus variants. Opportunistic fungal respiratory infections appeared in COVID patients, name the most possible pathogen found to be linked with the fungal infections?
a) Candida spp
b) Nocardia asteroides
c) Cladosporium cladosprioides
d) Aspergillus spp
e) Blastomyces spp

17) Which of the following pathogen is found to be less likely associated with the children having a lung infection called cystic fibrosis?
a) Bacillus anthracis
b) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
c) Yersinia pestis
d) Staphylococcus aureus

18) All of the following methods are the common preventive measures to reduce the transmission of respiratory infections, Except?
a) Avoiding close contact with the infected persons
b) Vaccinating the sick persons only for the respiratory illness
c) Covering the face and nose while sneezing and coughing
d) Maintaining clean hygiene habits, washing hands regularly
e) Using the disinfectants and sanitizers regularly

19) Name the type of disease that can be easily transmitted by airborne droplets from one person to the other, select all the correct options
a) Diptheria
b) Pneumonic plague
c) Tuberculosis
d) Bubonic plague
e) Covid-19
f) Anthrax

20) Select the incorrect statement regarding respiratory infections flu and the common cold
a) The cold symptoms are usually milder than flu
b) Rhinovirus is the most causative agent of the common cold
c) Flu vaccination is recommended annually to 6 months age and older
d) There are no antiviral drugs available for the treatment of flu 

21) The common route for the transmission of bacterial meningitis is through saliva, although not highly contagious, the infection can be severe and even cause death. Name the causative pathogen of the disease
a) Stachybotrys chartarum
b) Neisseria meningitidis
c) Group A Streptococci
d) Yersinia pestis

22) According to CDC a recent study on infectious diseases have shown the most contagious respiratory viral pathogen
a) Sars Cov
b) Adenovirus
c) Covid-19 Delta variant
d) Haemophilus influenza type b

23) Select all the correct answers, respiratory diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans
a) Candidiasis
b) Brucellosis
c) Tularemia
d) Anthrax

24) Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death around the world each year, there are vaccines available to the public that can prevent viral or bacterial pathogens. Which of the following category of a person is less likely to get pneumonia?
a) A healthy 25-year-old woman who is 14 weeks pregnant
b) A 70-year-old diabetic male staying in a hospital for more than a week
c) A 35-year-old male who is an avid cigarette smoker
d) A 18-month-old baby without any preexisting medical conditions

25) Which of the following test method is the least important routine diagnostic method for acute respiratory illnesses?
a)  Chest X-ray
b) Nasal/throat swab specimen
c) Sputum specimen
d) Urine specimen 

1- c)Streptococcus pneumoniae  
2- b)Klebsiella pneumoniae  
3- d)Legionella pneumophila   
4- d)It can be cultivated in regular nutrient agar media 
5- c)Moraxella catarrhalis  
6- b)Bordetella pertussis   
7- e)Respiratory syncytial virus
8- e)Candida albicans 
9- c)Parainfluenza virus
10- d)Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen that causes sinusitis   
11- a)Respiratory Syncytial virus
12- a)SARS-CoV-2   d)Pneumocystis jirovecii and, e)Respiratory syncytial virus
13- b)
14- d)
15- c)Pseudomonas aeruginosa
16)-d) Aspergillus spp
17)-a)Bacillus anthracis
18- b)Vaccinating the sick persons only for the respiratory illness
19- a), b), c) and e)
20- d) There are no antiviral drugs for the treatment of flu
21- b)Neisseria meningitidis
22- c)Covid-19 Delta variant
23-b), c), and d)
24-a) A healthy 25-year-old woman who is 14 weeks pregnant
25-d) Urine specimen

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