MCQs on Opportunistic Mycoses (Aspergillosis, Mucormycosis)

Fungi causing opportunistic mycoses (Aspergillus spp, black fungus)
Multiple Choice Questions

1)Which of the following are the important opportunistic fungal infections? 
Select all the correct options:
a) Aspergillosis
b) Listeriosis
c) Oculomycosis
d) Mucormycosis   

2) Which of the following statement is Not the general characteristics of Candida albicans?
a) It is found as normal flora in the human body
b) It is a commonly found yeast infection
c) It appears in two forms yeast and filamentous form 
d) It is the most common pathogen of respiratory infections 

3) Which of the following pathogenic fungus is a part of human microbiota?
a) Aspergillus niger
b) Cryptococcus neoformans
c) Candida albicans 
d) Rhizopus oryzae

4) Zygomycosis/ mucormycosis is usually caused by which of the following fungi? 
Select all the correct answers:
a) Plasmodium spp
b) Rhizopus spp
c) Mucor spp
d) Histoplasma spp

5) An 11-year-old girl is presented at a clinic with white lesions appearing around her mouth and tongue. Her parents report that the girl developed fever, along with swelling and pain in the affected area 2 days ago. 
A swab specimen is collected, and microscopic examination reveals budding spherical cells of fungi accompanied by hyphae. Following a 24-hour incubation period of the cultured specimen, smooth cream-colored colonies became evident.
Name the most possible fungi associated with the infection?
a) Rhizopus oryzae
b) Aspergillus fumigatus
c) Pneumocystis jiroveci
d) Candida albicans 

6) All of the following are the morphological characteristics of Cryptococcus neoformans, EXCEPT?
a) It is a capsulated yeast
b) It is present in cow dung
c) Produces urease
d) None of the above

7) Black fungal spores are found in the environment and pose a significant health threat as they are identified as a lethal fungal infection, especially in COVID-19 patients, particularly those with diabetes or those who have spent extended periods in intensive care units. 
Identify the potential fungal infection documented during the second surge of COVID-19 pandemic in India.
a) Candidiasis
b) Aspergillosis
c) Mucormycosis
d) Penicilliosis

8) Which of the following fungal pathogen can grow in pigeon droppings (excreta)?
a) Cryptococcus neoformans
b) Coccidioides immitis
c) Penicillium marneffei
d) Pneumocystis jiroveci

9) All of the following statements regarding Aspergillus fumigatus, termed as white fungus are correct, Except?
a) A common laboratory contaminant
b) It can easily spread from person to person
c) The common cause of fungi related asthma
d) The major cause of systemic mycoses

10) 'Aflatoxin' is usually present in moldy foods such as nuts and corn which can be poisonous for animals as well as humans. 
Name the possible pathogen which produces this toxin?
a) Aspergillus flavus 
b) Clostridium botulinum
c) Bacillus anthracis
d) Aspergillus niger

11) A 62 year old woman presents to healthcare clinic with a rapidly progressing facial infection associated with pain, swelling, and blackening of the nasal tissues. She reports the sudden onset of severe pain and swelling on the left side of her face, particularly around the nose. She noticed black discoloration and necrosis of the nasal tissues.
The symptoms started a few days ago and have been rapidly worsening. She denies any recent trauma to the face or nasal region. She has Type 2 diabeted mellitus since last 10 years. 
Upon examination by healthcare provider the patient has no nausea, vomiting, or changes in bowel habits. No cough, shortness of breath, or nasal congestion.
Blood pressure is 140/85 mmHg, pulse 92 bpm, respiratory rate 18/min, temperature 100.4°F (38°C). Appears unwell, slightly disoriented. The patient has severe swelling and erythema on the left side of the face. Necrotic tissue and blackening around the nasal area. 
CT Scan of the head and face shows soft tissue swelling and necrosis involving the left nasal region.
She is diagnosed with rhinocerebral mucormycosis.
Name the possible fungus responsible for the infection?
a) Pneumocystis jeroveci
b) Rhizopus oryzae 
c) Coccidioides immitis
d) Aspergillus flavus

12) Which of the following antibiotic is found to be most effective for the treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma?
a) Penicillin G
b) Fluconazole
c) Ketoconazole
d) Amphotericin B

13) Name the fungal infection which is most commonly seen in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS with the wart-like skin lesions which often appear on the face?
a) Mucormycosis
b) Histoplasmosis
c) Penicillosis
d) Blastomycosis

14) Which of the following human fungal species also present in the lungs of animals, causes pneumonia in immunocompromised patients?
a) Aspergillus niger
b) Pneumocystis jirovecii 
c) Penicillium marneffei
d) Fusarium keratitis

15) Which of the following fungi causes vaginal thrush?
a) Candida albicans 
b) Rhizopus oryzae
c) Candida tropicalis
d) Aspergillus fumigatus

16) Which of the following fungus is not the type of fungi associated with emerging opportunistic fungal infections in AIDS patients?
a. Fusarium chlamydosporum
b. Penicillium marneffei
c. Trichosporon beigelii
d. Rhizopus stolonifer     

17) In recent years, opportunistic mycoses in immunocompromised individuals is caused by various types of fungi including molds.
All of the following are examples of yeasts and molds, EXCEPT?
a. Aspergillus niger
b. Histoplasma capsulatum    
c. Acremonium spp
d. Fusarium spp
e. Trichosporon beigelii
f. Candida krusei

18) All of the following are the common sites of infections caused by C. albicans, Except?
a. Mouth
b. Throat     
c. Groin of infants
d. Vaginal area

19) Which of the following are Not the common characteristics of  A. fumigatus and A. flavus?
a. Both of the organisms secrete aflatoxins    
b. Present in the environment
c.  A. flavus is also a common plant pathogen
d. Both fungi are types of molds

20) Fusarium solani is one of the most common fungal pathogens which causes infections in immunocompromised patients. 
Which of the following statement is Not true about the characteristic features of the pathogen?
a. Found in soils
b. Skin infections in human
c. Commensal of the human intestines
d. A common plant pathogen

1- a), c) and d)
2- d) Most common pathogen of the respiratory infections
3- c) Candida albicans 
4- b) Rhizopus spp, and c) Mucor spp
5- d) Candida albicans 
6- b) Present in cow dung
7- c) Mucormycosis
8- a) Cryptococcus neoformans 
9- b) It can spread from person to person
10-a) Aspergillus flavus 
11-b) Rhizopus oryzae. R. oryzae is a fast growing filamentous fungus, it is commonly found in soil, decaying organic matter, and is often associated with food spoilage. While it is generally considered non-pathogenic in the environment, R. oryzae can become opportunistic and cause infections in immunocompromised individuals.
12-d) Amphotericin B 
13- c) Penicillosis 
14- b) Pneumocystis jiroveci 
15-a) Candida albicans 
16-d) Rhizopus stolonifer
17-b) Histoplasma capsulatum
18-b) Throat
19)-a) Both of the organisms secrete aflatoxins
20)-c) Commensal of human intestines