MCQs on Hospital Acquired (nosocomial)/Healthcare associated Infections, common types of HAIs- Medical microbiology

                   MCQs on Hospital Acquired Infections, names and examples of HAI

1) What are the most common types of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)/Nosocomial infections?
Select all the correct answers
a)Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs)
b)Surgical sites infections (SSIs)
c)Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP)
d)Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)

2) A premature baby boy, just a few hours old, was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) due to low birth weight and challenges with breastfeeding. By the third day, the baby started running a fever and displayed respiratory distress, in addition to struggling with feeding and being irritable. Concurrently, other infants in the NICU were also suspected of pneumonia.
Identify the predominant gram-negative bacteria typically found in cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia among neonates.
a) Streptococcus pneumonia
b) Klebsiella pneumonia 
c) Haemophilus influenzae
d) Listeria monocytogens

3) A 72-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital's emergency department following a head injury and concussion resulting from a fall in his home's bathroom. After five days of having a urinary catheter, he exhibited symptoms of a urinary tract infection, which, in turn, led to hyponatremia. This hyponatremia caused secondary symptoms like nausea, fatigue, and confusion. The medical team suspected a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) and conducted a urine sample culture, revealing the presence of gram-negative bacilli with a greenish pigmentation on the culture media.
Which of the following bacteria was identified in the urine sample culture of this patient?
a) Clostridium difficile
b) Escherichia coli
c) Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
d) Staphylococcus aureus

4) What are the common agents associated with healthcare-associated outbreaks in children?
A) Measles, mumps, and rubella
B) Influenza virus, RSV, and adenovirus
C) Salmonella, E. coli, and Listeria
D) Tuberculosis, syphilis, and HIV

5) All of the following statements regarding bacteremia and septicemia that occurr during hospitalization are true, Except?
a) The most common pathogens isolated are gram negative bacilli   
b) It may occur after most of the surgical procedures 
c) The infection is seen only in newborns 
d) Prolonged use of intravenous cannula can increase the infection

6) What are the different routes through which microorganisms may transmitted within a healthcare facility?
Identify all the correct answers:
a) Transmission of pathogens through an infected person
b) Transmission via contaminated objects or surfaces  
c) Transmission of pathogens through inhalation of airborne droplets
d) Transmission of microorganisms through the oral route  

7)Which of the following pathogen is a frequently found multidrug-resistant bacteria in hospitals?
a) Bacillus anthracis      
b) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
c) Proteus vulgaris
d) Pseudomonas aeruginosa

8)The handwashing procedure in the obstetrics and gynecology departments of the hospital drastically reduced the cases of puerperal fever when it was first introduced in the 1840s. 
Name the physician and scientist who first started this procedure
a) Robert Koch
b) Edward Jenner
c) Ignaz Semmelweis
d) Alexander Fleming

9) A female infant born with underdeveloped lungs required an extended hospital stay. During this period, she contracted a severe respiratory infection, most likely due to the use of contaminated central lines. This particular type of infection is referred to as a central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs).
Which of the following is a likely pathogen?
a) Coagulase negative Staphylococci 
b) Clostridium perfringens
c) Mycoplasma pneumonia
d) Streptococcus pyogenes

10) Name the least common pathogen for ventilator associated pneumonia 
a) Staphylococcus aureus
b) Klebsiella pneumoniae
c) Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
d) Acinetobacter baumanii

11)Which of the following (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) CDC guidelines for personal protective equipment (PPE) is considered a lower priority in terms of preventive measures implemented by healthcare personnel to control hospital-acquired infections? 
a) Good hand hygiene
b) Proper mask for respiratory protection
c) Sterile gown and gloves
d) Easy and secure eye wears
e) Talking politely to the patients

12) Which of the following gram positive bacteria is commonly isolated from skin infections is also a Methicillin-Resistant bacteria?
a) Haemophilus influenzae
b) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
c) Proteus vulgaris
d) Staphylococcus aureus

13) The following pathogen is responsible for the common hospital acquired as well as community acquired gastrointestinal infections, it can survive and stay viable in the surface regions for an extended period. The organism consists of spores which is resistant and can withstand thorough cleaning. 
Name the most likely pathogen
a) Bacillus anthracis
b) Clostridium difficile 
c) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
d) Penicillium chrysogenum

14) What is a major enteric pathogen responsible for healthcare-associated diarrheal outbreaks in hospitals and other settings?
A) Clostridium difficile
B) E. coli
C) Norovirus
D) Salmonella typhii

15) Which of the following is Not the major pathogen isolated in hospital-acquired Urinary tract infections?
a) Proteus vulgaris
b) Salmonella paratyphi
c) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
d) E. coli 

16) Patients admitted to ICU with COVID-19 infections in India developed fungal infections.
      Which of the following fungus was found to be the causative pathogen 
      also, known as a black fungus?
a) Aspergillus spp
b) Microsporum spp
c) Trichophyton spp
d) Candida spp

17) Which of the following fungal infection is commonly associated with contaminated air and ventilation system failure in hospital-acquired infections?
a) Salmonellosis
b) Nocardiosis
c) Aspergillosis
d) Chromoblastomycosis

18) Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLA-BSIs), Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs), Surgical site infections (SSIs) and Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are the types of HAIs categorized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

19) Health care-associated bloodstream infections are often associated with the presence of which of the following?
a) Antibiotic-resistant organisms 
b) Immunocompromised individuals
c) Intravascular catheters or devices
d) Localized infection

20) What is the primary responsibility of a microbiology laboratory during an infectious disease outbreak?
a) Treating infected patients
b) Identifying the causative agent
c) Conducting epidemiological surveys
d) Providing public health guidance

1-a)Catheter-associated urinary tract infections, b)Surgical sites infections, c)Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) and, d)Central line-associated bloodstream infections.

2-b) Klebsiella pneumonia. It is a gram negative bacilli, a common cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia and is sometimes associated with outbreaks in healthcare settings. Klebsiella pneumonia infections is common in immunocompromised individuals or those who have recently undergone surgeries, and in the elderly and patients in intensive care units.  
3-c) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is a gram-negative bacillus often associated with healthcare-associated infections including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and skin infections. It is known for its resistance to many antibiotics, when cultured on agar media it produces greenish pigmentation.
4-b) Influenza virus, RSV, and adenovirus
5-c) The infection is seen only in newborns
6-a) Transmission of pathogens through an infected person, b) Transmission via contaminated objects or surfaces, c) Transmission of pathogens through inhalation of airborne droplets, and d) Transmission of microorganisms through the oral route 
7-d) Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
8-c) Ignaz Semmelweis
9-a) Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS). A group of bacteria commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans.CoNS usually cause infections in infants shortly after birth or during their early days of life. These infections can manifest in various ways, but they are typically related to healthcare settings, including neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).

10-c) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
11-e) None of the above 
12-d) Staphylococcus aureus. Infections caused by a drug-resistant strain of the S. aureus bacterium can lead to skin infections, pneumonia, and other serious conditions.

13-bClostridium difficile
14-a) Clostridium difficile
15-b) Salmonella paratyphi
16-a) Aspergillus spp
17-c) Aspergillosis
18-a) TRUE
19-c) Intravascular catheters or devices 
20-b) Identifying the causative agent