MCQ on Malaria Parasites (Plasmodium sps) (Medical Microbiology)

1. Malaria is endemic in many countries and is reported to be a leading cause of death from the parasitic infection killing millions of people globally, the most number of deaths occurring in Africa. Which of the following age group of people have a high fatality rate?
a. 10 - 15 year of age
b. > 5 year of age   
c. < 40 years of age
d. 10- 25 years of age

2. Which of the following Plasmodium spp is considered to be the one causing a greater number of mortality rates throughout the world?
a. Plasmodium knowlesi
b. Plasmodium malariae
c. Plasmodium falciparum  
d. Plasmodium vivax 

3. Which of the following human disease is transmitted from the vector Anopheles mosquito?
a. Dengue
b. Malaria     
c. Filaria
d. Encephalitis

4. A 7 year old girl from a malaria-endemic region visited the hospital with fever, chills, aches, and fatigue. Blood smear method (thick and thin blood smear) was performed for the microscopic examination, the intracellular parasite and its stages were identified which confirmed that the girl is diagnosed with malaria. Which of the following statements regarding the general characteristics of Plasmodium spp is Not correct?
a. There are five known species of Plasmodium that cause infections in human
b. The parasite containing sporozoites are released into the blood via the mosquito
c. The sexual reproduction is completed in mosquito whereas asexual in human RBCs
d. The infection can lead to liver and spleen enlargement 

5. From the above question, which of the following statements is Not true regarding the thick and thin blood smear in the microscopic examination method?
a. All asexual stages of the Plasmodium spp can be seen
b. If the result is negative, no further repeat blood smears is needed 
c. If the result is negative, repeat blood smears should be taken every 12 hours for 48 hours
d. The ring stage, schizonts, and merozoites can be observed 

6. All of the following statements regarding Plasmodium falciparum infection is true, Except?
a. P. falciparum, falciparum name is derived from sickle-shaped gametocytes 
b. Malaria caused by P. falciparum is also known as "malignant tertian malaria"
c. It causes severe infections and is known to be most fatal of all human malaria  
d. Schuffner's dots are developed and can be observed during microscopic examination   

7. Which of the following Plasmodia has the general features related to P. vivax and infections similar to that caused by P. falciparum?
a. P. knowlesi   
b. P. ovale
c. P. malariae
d. None of the above

8. Which of the following is the one morphological characteristics which distinguish P. vivax and 
P. ovale from other human malaria parasites?
a. Maurer's dots
b. Schuffner's dots
c. Ring stages
d. Banana shaped gametocytes

9. A person can develop severe infections when infected with P. falciparum, the parasites grow and infect mainly red blood cells and liver cells and in severe cases may even invade the central nervous system. The malaria complications can lead to hemolytic anemia and symptoms like jaundice, discoloration of the urine can be seen, which of the following name have been given to this type of complication caused by P. falciparum? 
a. Rift valley fever
b. Yellow fever
c. Blackwater fever   
d. Kala azar    

10. All types of malaria have flu like symptoms, after a few days of infection the individuals could experience periodic febrile attacks, also known as malarial paroxysms. Which of the following statements regarding malarial paroxysm is Not correct?
a. It has three stages, hot, cold, and sweating stages
b. It lasts for about 8 to 12 hours
c. It happens when the RBCs release sporozoites in the blood   
d. It is usually 72 hours for P. malariae and 48 hours for other human Plasmodium spp

11. All of the following statements regarding recurrent malaria (relapse, recrudescence, and reinfection) is correct, Except?
a. Some patients develop malaria again after a period of time
b. Recrudescence is due to insufficient treatment, relapse is due to the reappearance of merozoites from hypnozoites
c. It can be seen in all Plasmodium spp causing malaria     
d. The highest rate of relapses occurs with malaria caused by P. vivax

12. A thin blood smear is used as a specimen for the microscopic detection of Plasmodia, which of the following dye/stain is used for the identification?
a. Lactophenol cotton blue
b. Giemsa stain  
c. Safranin
d. Crystal violet

13. Schuffner's dots (RBCs) is the characteristic feature of  P. vivax and P. ovale, maurer dots is seen in....................?
a. P. knowlesi
b. P. malariae and P. falciparum
c. P. falciparum      
d. P malariae

14. Dengue and Malaria are both prevalent in India and an increasing number of people are dying annually from the diseases. Which of the following statements regarding malaria and dengue are Not true?
a. Dengue is transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes whereas malaria via Anopheles mosquitoes
b. Painful eyes and skin rashes are the symptoms of dengue, not seen in malaria
c. Malaria can be treated drugs whereas there is no available drugs for the treatment of dengue
d. Malaria and dengue both are viral infections  

15. From the question above, which of the following Plasmodium spp is more commonly infectious in India?
a. P. vivax and P. falciparum   
b. P. ovale and P. falciparum
c. P. malariae and P. vivax
d. P. falciparum 

16. What is the relation between the disease sickle cell anemia and malaria? Select the correct answer
a. Sickle cell anemia patients with HbS homozygous allele are resistant to malaria
b. Sickle cell anemia patients  HbS homozygous allele are more susceptible to malaria caused by P. vivax
c. Sickle cell trait individuals with  HbA & HbS heterozygote allele are resistant to malaria
d. Sickle cell trait individuals with HbA & HbS heterozygote allele have reduced fatality from malaria

17. Which of the following statements is most correct about the "exoerythrocytic phase" of the development of the Plasmodia?
a. The sporozoites of plasmodia do not divide and remains outside the red blood cells
b. This phase occurs only in P. vivax and P. ovale
c. The sporozoites are called hypnozoites during the exoeythrocyticphase 
d. There is a long duration of time between initial infection and appearance of the symptoms 
e. All of the above  

18. When the sporozoites enter the human blood, it is carried to the liver and replicate and develops into merozoites in the liver. The merozoites release into the blood and the parasites invade RBCs. Which of the following statements is Not true regarding the developmental phase of  Plasmodia inside the RBCs?
a. The phase is known as the erythrocytic phase of malaria
b. The merozoites go through asexual reproduction   
c. The phase lasts for two to three days    
d. The merozoites go through sexual reproduction and develop into a zygote 

19. Which of the following Plasmodium spp is responsible for the highest mortality rate annually around the world?
a. P. knowlesi
b. P. falciparum   
c. P. malariae
d. P. vivax
e. P. ovale

20. The malaria drug hydroxychloroquine was falsely reported to be effective in which type of viral infection in 2020?
a. Dengue
b. Influenza
c. COVID-19  
d. Swine flu
e. Hepatitis 

Answers
1- b. > 5 year of age
2-c. Plasmodium falciparum  
3-b. Malaria    
4- All the options are correct, a, b, c & d
5-b. If the result is negative, no further repeat blood smears is needed   
6-d. Schuffner's dots are developed and can be observed during microscopic examination   
7-a. P. knowlesi   
8-b. Schuffner's dots  
9-c. Blackwater fever  
10-c. It happens when the RBCs release sporozoites in the blood
11-c. It can be seen in all Plasmodium spp causing malaria 
12-b. Giemsa stain 
13-c. P. falciparum   
14-d. Malaria and dengue both are viral infections 
15-a. P. vivax and P. falciparum   
16-d. Sickle cell trait individuals with HbA & HbS heterozygote allele have reduced fatality from malaria
17-e. All of the above
18-d. The merozoites go through sexual reproduction and develop into a zygote
19-b. P. falciparum 
20- c. COVID-19