MCQ on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/ AIDS) (Medical Microbiology)

Multiple Choice Question on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS)

1) There are two types of HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) viruses- HIV 1 & HIV 2. HIV 1 virus is found worldwide.  HIV 2 (a less pathogenic than HIV 1) is mainly found in which part of the world?
a) Asia
b) West Africa
c) Northern Europe
b) North America

2) Which of the following is an important molecule present in the outer membrane of HIV that helps to enter the host cell?
a) Polysaccharides
b) Glycoproteins
c) Proteins
d) Lipopolysaccharides

3) All of the following are examples of the route through which HIV can be transmitted from one person to another, EXCEPT?
a) Unprotected sexual contact with an infected person
b) From infected mother to the fetus
c) From the mosquito bite carrying the virus
d) Exposure to contaminated blood and blood products
e) Using and sharing the same swimming pool 

4) HIV belongs to which of the following genus member of the virus?
a) Ortho myxovirus
b) Retrovirus
c) Parvovirus
d) Reovirus

5) All of the following statements regarding HIV infection in human is true, EXCEPT?
a) Person once infected will remain infected for life if untreated
b) Monocytes and macrophages are the major reservoirs of the virus
c) The opportunistic infections in AIDS are mainly due to the loss of cell-mediated immunity
d) The center of the virus has the main antigenic properties

6) Which of the following enzyme required for viral replication plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection?
a) RNA polymerase
b) DNA polymerase
c) RNA polymerase II
d) Reverse transcriptase

7) The envelope protein gp120 (Glycoprotein 120) is required for the attachment of the HIV virus to CD 4 receptors of target host cells. Identify the immune cells that consist of CD 4 receptors?
a) T helper cells
b) Monocytes
c) Macrophages
d) Dendritic cells

8) Select the correct answer, the chemokine receptor cell present in the host macrophages that helps in the primary attachment of HIV is...........?
a) CxCR 4
b) CCR5
c) Both of the above
d) None of the above

9) Which of the following is an important HIV antigen in determining the early detection of HIV infection?
a) p24
b) gp120
c) Pol gene
d) Gp120

10) In many patients, the chronic HIV infection progresses to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) which is characterized by multiple opportunistic infections. Which of the following common bacterial infections is seen globally in HIV-infected patients?
a) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
b) Tuberculosis
c) Candidiasis
d) Toxoplasmosis

11) When was the first human AIDS case reported in the USA?
a) 1990
b) 1982
c) 1981
d) 1991

12) Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a combination therapy that includes protease inhibitor class drugs like indinavir and saquinavir and other drugs prescribed for HIV infection. What is the main goal of these drugs?
a) Inhibitors of the enzyme protease
b) Inhibits viral replication and viral load
c) Prevents the interaction between the virus and the coreceptor
d) All of the above

13) All of the following are examples of a biological specimen that can be taken for the laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection, EXCEPT?
a) Blood
b) Saliva with the presence of blood
c) Genital secretions
d) Urine with no presence of blood

14) Which of the following drug have shown significant results in reducing the transmission of HIV infection from mother to baby?
a) Acyclovir
b) Zidovudine
c) Ceftriaxone
d) None of the above

15) All of the following are the current preventive methods of HIV infection, EXCEPT?
a) Safe and protected sex
b) Use of available vaccines
c) Use of sterile injection needles
d) Safe blood transfusion method
16) According to the CDC of the USA, as many as a million people are already been HIV positive since the disease first occurred in humans. Which of the following race of people die in increasing number each year in the USA?
a)  African Americans
b) Hispanics
c) Chinese
d) White Americans 

17) A 45 year old man is diagnosed with AIDS, he was living with HIV for more than 5 years. Which of the following statements is true regarding AIDS?
a) The CD4+ count is less than 200 cells/mm3
b) It occurs at the early stage of the HIV infection
c) The person with AIDS can live up to 10 years
d) The virus is usually a dormant state during this stage

18) Prenatal HIV testing is one of the important blood tests done during pregnancy. It is recommended in order to reduce and prevent the transmission of the infection in newborns from the HIV-positive pregnant women. According to UNICEF which of the following countries have an increasing number of babies diagnosed with HIV positive from 2010 to 2020?
a) India
b) Bangladesh
c) Africa
d) China
e) USA

Multiple Choice Answers:
1)- b) West Africa
2)- b) Glycoprotein
3)- c) From the mosquito bite carrying the virus and e) Using and sharing the same swimming pool
4)- b) Retrovirus
5)- d) The center of the virus has the main antigenic properties
6)- d) Reverse transcriptase
7)- a) T helper cells
8)- b) CCR5
9)- a) p24
10)- b) Tuberculosis
11)- c) 1981
12)- b) Inhibits viral replication and viral load
13)- d) Urine with no presence of blood
14)- b) Zidovudine
15)- b) Use of available vaccines 
16)- a) African Americans
17)- a) 
18)-c) Africa

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