MCQs on Fungi and Fungal Infections in human (Medical Mycololgy)

Multiple Choice Question on Fungi and Fungal Infections

1) What are the different types of medically important fungal infections? 
Select from all the options below
a) Aspergillosis
c) Mucormycosis
d) Toxoplasmosis

2) Which of the following is Not a common cultural characteristics of fungi?
a) They are heterotypic eukaryotic microorganisms
b) The cell wall is composed of chitin
c) Fungi reproduce asexually only
d) Can cause superficial and systemic diseases

3) Which of the following dimorphic fungus is a medically important human pathogen that can cause severe respiratory infections?
a) Cryptococcus neoformans
b) Histoplasma capsulatum
c) Mucor racemosus
d) Aspergillus niger

4) Various components of fungi contribute to the laboratory identification and detection of the organism, including features of the fungal cell wall.
Identify the components:
a) Hyphae/ mycelia
b) Consists of a stalk/stem
c) Consists of a fruiting body with spores
d) Consists of the capsule enzyme

5) Which structural feature is more complex in Aspergillus compared to Penicillium?
a. Conidial heads
b. Conidiophores
c. Hyphae branching pattern
d. Mycelium

6) Which of the following statements are true regarding Dermatophytosis? 
Select the correct answers
a) The most commonly occurring fungal infection in humans
b) Only dimorphic fungi cause dermatophytosis
c) Skin infections that are known as tinea and ringworms
d) The most common cause of lung infections

7) A 57 year old male visits a healthcare center. He has a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for the past 10 years, managed with oral hypoglycemic agents. The patient presents to the clinic with complaints of persistent itching, redness, and discomfort in the groin area for the past two weeks. He mentions that the symptoms have been gradually worsening, and over-the-counter antifungal creams have provided only temporary relief.
Upon examination, Erythematous rash with well-defined borders, satellite lesions, and small pustules in the groin area. The skin appears macerated and has a slightly raised, scaly edge. Blood glucose levels are elevated (random blood sugar: 240 mg/dL). No fever is noted.
Given the symptoms and the appearance of the rash, the clinician suspects a fungal infection, particularly a dermatophyte infection.
What is the likely diagnosis for the patient's skin condition?
a) Eczema 
b) Impetigo
c) Psoriasis
d) Tinea cruris (jock itch)

8) All of the following are the common staining methods that are used in the direct microscopic examination for the diagnosis of fungal pathogens, EXCEPT?
a) India Ink stain
b) Silver stain
c) Lactophenol cotton blue stain
d) Leishman’s stain
e) Potassium hydroxide
f) Methenamine silver stain

9) What color does the fungal cell wall appear when dyed with Periodic acid-Schiff stain?
a) Black
b) Red
c) It appears colorless
d) Violet

10) Which of the following fungi is commonly found in moldy foods that produces the mycotoxin called aflatoxin?
a) Aspergillus flavus
b)Coccidioides immitis
c) Mucor 
d) Stachybotrys chartarum

11) What is a characteristic of both Aspergillus and Penicillium mycelium?
a. Aseptate
b. Branched with conidiophores
c. Coenocytic
d. Septate

12) Which of the following is the most correct statement regarding the Deuteromycetes also known as fungi imperfecti?
a) They are the causative agent of subcutaneous mycoses
b) The sexual reproduction method is not clearly known
c) They produce basidiospores through the asexual reproduction method
d) None of the above

13) The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most commonly used in the production of which of the following product?
a) Wine
b) Orange juice
c) Cheese
d) Sausages

14) Which of the following antifungal medicine is most effective for the treatment of rashes in athlete's foot or ringworm fungal infection?
a) Optochin
b) Bacitracin and Zinc
c) Clotrimazole
d) Tobramycin

15) What are the most common laboratory culture media for fungi? 
Select from all the options below
a) Sabouraud dextrose agar
b) Brain heart infusion agar
c) Thayer Martin medium
d) Cornmeal agar

16) Which of the following dermatophyte genus is capable of invading the hair, skin, and nails?
a) Candida
b) Epidermophyton
c) Microsporum
d) Trichophyton

17) One of the routine microscopic laboratory identification methods of the fungal specimens is done by using..........
a) 70% KOH mount
b) 50% H2O2
c) 10% KOH
d) Formalin

18) Which of the following is a medically important fungus that is identified as a mold and contains conidiophores when examined under the microscope?
a) Saccharomyces cerevisiae
b) Rhizopus stolonifer
c) Candida tropicalis
d) Aspergillus fumigatus

19) All of the following are common pathogens that are naturally found in soil, Except?
a) Candida albicans
b) Coccidiodes immitis
c) Sporothrix schenckii
d) Cryptococcus neoformans

20) Which of the following clinically important black color fungus can grow in the indoor environment, usually in buildings and houses that have water leakage problems?
a) Penicillin spp
b) Aspergillus spp
c) Saccharomyces spp
d) Stachybotrys spp

21)What is a characteristic feature of a fungus ball caused by Aspergillus in the external auditory canal?
a) Allergic reactions
b) Mycotic keratitis
c) Pulmonary nodules
d) Rapid dissemination

22) Which of the following is a common habitat for Mucorales fungi?
a) Arctic ice caps
b) Deep-sea hydrothermal vents
c) Soil and decaying organic matter
d) Human skin

23) In the 1920s, Sir Alexander Fleming successfully identified an antibiotic derived from which of the following mold?
a) Aspergillus spp
b) Fusarium spp
c) Mucor spp
d) Penicillium spp

24) Select all the true statements about the harmful fungi and the increasing threat of fungal pathogens in the last few years?
a) Majority of animals and organisms die from deadly fungal pathogens 
b) Drug resistance to fungal infection has increased 
c) Fungal infection is increasingly becoming a worrisome agricultural threat
d) Multidrug-resistant pathogens have increased with difficulty in the treatment

25) Talaromyces marneffei, previously called Penicillium marneffei is
a) A common yeast pathogen in diabetic patients
b) A common pathogen only found in India
c)An important dimorphic fungus that commonly infects AIDS patients
d) A medically important mold that infects animals only

Multiple Choice Answers
1)- a) Aspergillosis, b)Dermatophytosis, and c) Mucormycosis. Aspergillosis is caused by Aspergillus spp that cause lungs infection, leading to a range of respiratory symptoms.
Various species of dermatophytes (e.g., Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton) cause skin, hair, and nails infection, it is commonly known as ringworm or athlete's foot. 
Mucorales fungi (e.g., Rhizopus, Mucor) can affect various organs and cause mucormycosis, especially in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying health conditions. 
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection.

2-c) Reproduce asexually only.
3-b) Histoplasma capsulatum. In the host tissues, H. capsulatum exists as a yeast form which is the pathogenic phase of the fungus. In the environment, outside the host, it exists as a mold with hyphae and conidia. Histoplasmosis can present as a mild respiratory illness or as a severe systemic infection, especially in immunocompromised individuals. In acute pulmonary histoplasmosis, symptoms may include fever, cough, and chest pain. 

4- a) Hyphaemycelia, b) Consists of a stalk/stem and c) Consists of fruiting body with spores. 
5 - b) Conidiophores
6-a)The most commonly occurring fungal infection in humans and, c) Skin infections that are known as tinea and ringworms
7-d) Tinea cruris (jock itch). The dermatophytes produce infections involving the superficial areas of the body, including the hair, skin, and nails (dermatomycoses), tinea cruris (jock itch) is a dermatophmnyte infection. 

8-d) Leishman’s stain
9-b) Red
10-a) Aspergillus flavus
11-d) Septate
 12-b) The sexual reproduction method is not clearly known
13-a) Wine
14- c) Clotrimazole, is an antifungal cream
The options a), b) and c) are antibiotics and not the antifungal creams
15- Option a) & b)
16)- d) Trichophyton. The dermatophyte Trichophyton cause infections involving the superficial areas of the body, including the hair, skin, and nails (dermatomycoses). 

17)- c)10% KOH
18)- d)Aspergillus fumigatus
19)- a)Candida albicans is a normal flora of the human vagina
20)- d) Stachybotrys spp
21)- c) Pulmonary nodules. 

22)-c) Soil and decaying organic matter. Mucorales are saprophytic fungi, commonly found in soil, decaying organic matter, and animal excrement. Some species can also be opportunistic pathogens, causing infections in immunocompromised individuals. Rhizopus and Mucor are notable genera. Mucormycosis is a serious and often fatal fungal infection caused by Mucorales
23)- d) Penicillium spp. 
24)- a), b), c) and d)
25)-c)An important dimorphic fungus that commonly infects AIDS patients


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