FDA Approved Immune Check Point Inhibiting Antibody Therapies That Target PD-1, PD-L1 or CTLA-4

Immune checkpoint inhibiting immunotherapies are the class of monoclonal antibody therapies that prevents T-cell inhibition and promotes the activation and proliferation of effector T cells. Two such receptors CTLA-4 & PD-1 that are expressed in T cells transduce inhibitory signals after binding to its ligand. The monoclonal antibodies targeted against these receptors or their ligands have been shown to increase the tumor-killing activity of T cells. 
Figure: Immune Check Point Inhibiting Monoclonal Antibodies and its Target in T cells and Tumors. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda), Nivolumab (Opdivo), Cemiplimab (Libtayo) blocks PD-1 expressed in T cells. Atezolizumab (Tecentriq), Avelumab (Bavencio), Durvalumab (Imfinzi) blocks PD-L1 expressed in tumor cells. Ipilimumab (Yervoy) blocks CTLA-4 antigen present in T cells
 

PD-1 inhibiting antibodies: 

These monoclonal antibodies block the PD-1 signaling by binding to its ligand PD-1 expressed in the T cells. Examples include
These monoclonal antibodies block the inhibitory PD-1 signaling by binding to its ligand PD-L1 expressed in the tumor cells. Examples include

CTLA-4 Inhibiting antibodies: 

These monoclonal antibodies block the inhibitory CTLA-4 signaling by binding to CTLA-4 expressed in the tumor cells. Example include

Indications of Immune Check Point Inhibiting Antibody Therapies

Immune checkpoint inhibiting antibody therapies have shown promise in treatment of
  • Melanoma,
  • Small Non-Cell Lung Cancer, 
  • Urothelial Carcinoma, 
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma etc. 
Refer to prescribing information for the indication of each drug. 

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