EVKEEZA: Evinacumab for Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Indication, Side Effects and Mechanism of Action

Evinacumab is FDA Approved Antibody Therapy for Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

EVKEEZA/Evinacumab-dgnb is a recombinant human monoclonal antibody that binds to and inhibits ANGPTL3. ANGPTL3 is a member of the angiopoietin-like protein family that is expressed primarily in the liver and plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and endothelial lipase (EL). Evinacumab-dgnb inhibition of ANGPTL3 leads to a reduction in LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides (TG). Evinacumab-dgnb reduces LDL-C independent of the presence of LDL receptor (LDLR) by promoting very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) processing and clearance upstream of LDL formation. Evinacumab-dgnb blockade of ANGPTL3 lowers TG and HDL-C by rescuing LPL and EL activities, respectively

Indication of EVKEEZA:

EVKEEZA is an ANGPTL3 (angiopoietin-like 3) inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to other low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering therapies for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients, aged 12 years and older, with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH). 

Limitations of Use: 

  • •The safety and effectiveness of EVKEEZA have not been established in patients with other causes of hypercholesterolemia, including those with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). 
  • •The effects of EVKEEZA on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have not been determined. 

Warning and Precautions

Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions: Have occurred with EVKEEZA in clinical trials. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue EVKEEZA, treat according to standard-of-care and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: EVKEEZA may cause fetal harm based on animal studies. Advise patients who may become pregnant of the risk to a fetus. Consider obtaining a pregnancy test prior to initiating treatment with EVKEEZA. Advise patients who may become pregnant to use contraception during treatment and for at least 5 months following the last dose

Mechanism of Action of Evinacumab: 

Evinacumab-dgnb is a recombinant human monoclonal antibody that binds to and inhibits ANGPTL3. ANGPTL3 is a member of the angiopoietin-like protein family that is expressed primarily in the liver and plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and endothelial lipase (EL). Evinacumab-dgnb inhibition of ANGPTL3 leads to reduction in LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides (TG). Evinacumab-dgnb reduces LDL-C independent of the presence of LDL receptor (LDLR) by promoting very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) processing and clearance upstream of LDL formation. Evinacumab-dgnb blockade of ANGPTL3 lowers TG and HDL-C by rescuing LPL and EL activities, respectively. 

Pharmacodynamics:

 Administration of evinacumab-dgnb in HoFH patients resulted in reductions in LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, apolipoprotein B and TG [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 

Pharmacokinetics:

The pharmacokinetic parameters described in this section are presented following administration of evinacumab-dgnb 15 mg/kg intravenously every 4 weeks, unless otherwise specified. Steady-state is reached after 4 doses, and the accumulation ratio is 2. According to population pharmacokinetic modeling, the mean (standard deviation) steady-state trough concentration is 241 (96.5) mg/L, whereas the mean (standard deviation) Cmax at the end of infusion is 689 (157) mg/L. Due to non-linear clearance, a 4.3-fold increase in area under the concentration time curve at steady-state (AUCtau.ss) for a 3-fold increase in evinacumab-dgnb dose up to 15 mg/kg IV every 4 weeks was predicted in patients with HoFH. 

Distribution 

The total volume of distribution estimated via population pharmacokinetic analysis was approximately 4.8 L. 

Elimination 

Evinacumab-dgnb elimination is mediated via parallel linear and non-linear pathways. At higher concentrations, evinacumab-dgnb elimination is primarily through a non-saturable proteolytic pathway, whereas at lower concentrations, the non-linear, saturable ANGPTL3 target-mediated elimination predominates. The elimination half-life is a function of serum evinacumab-dgnb concentrations and is not a constant. Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis, the median time for serum evinacumab-dgnb concentrations to decrease below the lower limit of quantitation (78 ng/mL) is 19 weeks after the last steady-state dose of 15 mg/kg IV every 4 weeks. 

Metabolism 

The exact pathway through which evinacumab-dgnb is metabolized has not been characterized. As a human monoclonal IgG4 antibody, evinacumab-dgnb is expected to be degraded into small peptides and amino acids via catabolic pathways in the same manner as endogenous IgG. Excretion Evinacumab-dgnb, a monoclonal antibody, is not likely to undergo renal excretion.

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