1.Overuse of sanitizer may induce resistance in microorganisms
2. Which of the following respiratory pathogens are the common worldwide antibiotic resistance bacteria?
a) Staphylococcus aeruginosa and Neisseria gonorrhoea
b) Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae
c) Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
d) Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
3. Which of the following gram positive bacteria have become a threat and is considered a global pandemic in antibiotic resistivity?
a) Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
b) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
c) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
d) Candida albicans
4. Which of the following group of gram negative bacteria previously susceptible to carbapenem have become resistant (treatment of last resort) to it in recent years?
b) Staphylococcus spp and Streptococcus spp
5. Which of the following gastrointestinal, gram positive bacteria is an important Vancomycin resistant bacteria?
6. Which of the following multidrug resistance (MDR) gram negative pathogens are commonly isolated from nosocomial infections and major cause of Healthcare associated infections?
a) Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnie
b) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii
c) Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis
7. Which of the following gram negative bacteria also known as 'stomach bug' that causes dysenteric diarrhea have emerged as a extensively drug-resistant bacteria (XDR)?
a) Mycobacterium spp
b) Shigella spp
c) Clostridium spp
d) Bacillus spp
8. According to Central Disease Control (CDC) about 1 million people have died due to antibiotic resistant infections in recent years.
Which of the following is considered the main cause of antibiotic resistance?
Select all the correct answers.
a) Overuse of antibiotic drugs
b) Incorrect prescription of antibiotics (Use of antibiotics in viral infections)
c) Not following healthcare personnel advise for antibiotic use
d) None of the above
9. The recent (2023) 'Shigellosis' outbreak in United States of America developed resistance to which of the following commonly used antibiotics (drug of choice) for the infection?
a) Ciprofloxacin and Azithromycin
b) Rifampicin and Flucanozole
c) Cephalosporin and Imipenem
10. Penicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus first occurred in which of the following year?
11. True or False. The number of antibiotics currently used for the treatment of human diseases and agricultural purpose is about 40 (>30)
12. Which of the following bacteria are the important Multi Drug resistance (MDR) gram positive bacteria? Select the correct answers
a) Staphylococcus aureus
b) Streptococcus pneumoniae
c) Acinetobacter baumannii
d) Enterococcus faecalis
13. Bubonic plague bacteria Yersinia pestis is currently found to be resistant to which of the following 'drug of choice' antibiotic?
d) Amphotericin B
14. True or False. The common types of antibiotic resistance is Acquired resistance and Mutational resistance.
15. Which of the following hospital acquired gram negative bacteria causes pneumonia and currently is emerging as an important antibiotic resistance bacteria throughout the world?
a) Enterococcus faecalis
b) Neisseria gonorrhoeae
c) Plasmodium falciparum
d) Acinetobacter baumannii
1. a) TRUE
2. d) Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
3. a) Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
4. c) Enterobacteriaceae
5. d) Enterococci
6. b) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii
7. b) Shigella spp
8. a) Overuse of antibiotic drugs, b) Use of antibiotics in viral infections, and c) Not following healthcare personnel advise for antibiotic use.
9. a) Ciprofloxacin and Azithromycin
10.b) 1940s, Penicillin was discovered in 1945. It became resistant in short period of time.
11. a) TRUE
12. a) Staphylococcus aureus, b) Streptococcus pneumoniae, and d) Enterococcus faecalis
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram negative bacteria.
13. c) Doxycycline, a) Voriconazole and d) Amphotericin B is a fungicidal drug, b) Albendazole is a antiparasitic drug
14. a) TRUE
Acquired resistance is high level resistance and transfer by conjugation, transduction and transformation.
Mutational resistance is low or moderate resistance and transfer to daughter cells
15. d) Acinetobacter baumannii, a) Enterococcus faecalis is a gram positive bacteria,
b)Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram negative bacteria that causes sexually transmitted disease
c) Plasmodium falciparum is a a (protozoa) parasite