Immunology: Host Defense Mechanism: MCQs

Multiple Choice Questions  on Host Defense Mechanism (Immunology)

1) According to .......................................... theory, an individual lymphocyte expresses a membrane receptor that is unique to each antigen. The binding of the antigen to a specific receptor provokes an immune response against that specific antigen.
a) Selective theory
b) Instructional theory
c) Clonal selection theory
d) None of the Above

2) Immunity is the defense mechanism of the body that protects against foreign pathogens. The immunity can be classified into innate immunity and acquired immunity. 
Which of the following is NOT true regarding innate immunity?
a) Broadly specific against the foreign antigen
b) Exist prior to the exposure o the antigens
c) Have memory cells
d) All of the above

3) Which of the following are the characteristics of acquired immunity?
a) Diversity
b) Memory
c) Specific
d) All of the above

4) Which of the following is not an example of innate immunity?
a) Phagocytosis
b)Antibodies 
c) Interferon
d) Mucous membrane

5) Lysozyme is an enzyme present in the tears and mucous secretion that cleaves
a) Lipopolysaccharides
b) Cellulose
c) Peptidoglycan
d) None of the above

6) Lipopolysaccharides present in the cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria are recognized by ......................................... and elicit an inflammatory immune response
a) Phagocytosis
b) Antibodies
c) Mucus lining
d) Toll-Like receptors (TLR-2)

7) The cardinal signs of inflammation are rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), and dolor (pain). 
Which of the following is the characteristic feature of inflammation response?
a) Vasodilation
b) Increased capillary permeability
c) Recruitment of phagocytosis
d) All of the above

8) The adaptive immunity that involves the production of antibodies for the clearance of antigens is called.................................................................
a) Cell-mediated cytotoxicity
b) Cell-mediated immunity
c) Humoral Immunity
d) None of the above

9) The antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a crucial role in the antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immune response. 
Which of the following is not the characteristic feature of APCs?
a) APCs internalize and degrade antigens
b) APCs present antigens to the T-cells via MHC-II molecules
c) APCs provide a co-stimulatory signal for T-cell activation
d) Excess co-stimulatory signals from APCs lead to hyperactivation of an immune response.

10) Which of the following is not the class of T cells?
a) T-helper cells
b) T-activator cells
c) T-suppressor cells
d) T-cytotoxic cells

11) Which of the following cells produces antibodies?
a) T-cells
b) B cells
c) Plasma cells
d) Memory cells

12) Which of the following is expressed in T cells that interact with antigen epitope?
a) T-cell receptor
b) T-cell antibodies
c) B-cell receptor
d) B-cell antibodies

13) Antibody functions as the effector of the humoral response by antigen binding and neutralizing it. The antigen can be eliminated by..............................................................................
a) Facilitating the antibodies update by phagocytes
b) Activating complements and inducing cell lysis
c) Preventing the binding and host cell attachment
d) All of the above

14) Which of the following immune cells are not derived from lymphoid progenitor cells?
a) B-cells
b) T-cells
c) Neutrophils
d)Natural Killer cells

15) The development of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells into different cell types requires the expression of a different set of genes for lineage determination at appropriate time and order. Various transcription factor is required for the expression of these genes. 
Which of the following statement is TRUE?
a) GATA-1 is required for myeloid lineage
b) Oct-2 is required for B cell differentiation to plasma cells
c) Ikaros is required for erythroid lineage
d) None of the above

16) The different lineage of the lymphocytes can be distinguished by characterizing the expression of their membrane molecules called the cluster of differentiation (CD). 
Which of the following CD is only found in B-cells?
a) CD-4
b) CD-8
c) CD-32
d) CD-45

17) Which of the following CD molecule is present in both cell types of T cells (Th and Tc) and acts as a receptor for the co-stimulatory signal from APCs?
a) CD28
b) CD4
c) CD2 
d) CD45

18) Which of the following CD molecule is a signaling transduction molecule present in lymphoid lineage cells such as T-cell, B-cells, and NK?
a) CD2
b) CD4
c) CD28
d) CD45

19) Which of the following cell plays a crucial role in antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity?
a) Macrophage
b) Natural Killer cells
c) B-cells
d) Dendritic cells

20) The tissue-specific macrophage-like tissues are essential for phagocytosis of the antigens. 
Which of the following cells are present in the kidney?
a) Mesangial cells
b) Kuffer cells
c) Histiocytes
d) Alveolar macrophages

21) Immunogens are antigens that can evoke an immune response. 
Which of the following is not an immunogen?
a) Protein
b) Lipopolysaccharides
c) Hapten
d) Polysaccharides 

22) The degree of immunogenicity generally depends on the degree of foreignness. 
Which of the following protein are highly conserved among species and have little immunogenicity when injected into cross-species?
a) Thyroglobulin
b) Collagen
c) Insulin
d)Bovine Serum Albumin

23) Although the degree of immunogenicity generally depends on the degree of foreignness, certain antigens/tissues are immunogenic against self-antigens. 
Name the organ/tissue doing this type of function? 
a) Kidney
b) Cornea
c) Heart
d) Collagen

24) Which of the properties of an antigen makes it poorly immunogenic?
a) Distant species origin
b) High molecular weight proteins
c) Heteropolymers
d) Homopolymers

25) B-cells have cell surface antibodies that serve as the recognition molecule, and T cell recognizes when these antigens are presented via MHC molecules. 
Some glycolipids are also recognized by T-cell when presented by a non-MHC molecule known as..................................
a) CD1
b) CD2
c) CD4
d) CD8

26) The discrete sites that are recognized by antibodies or T cells are called epitopes. 
Which of the following is TRUE regarding epitopes?
a) B cell and T cells recognize the same epitopes
b) B cell and T cells recognize different epitopes
c) Epitope contains only sequential amino acids.
d) Epitopes bind to the antibody with covalent bonding

27) The epitopes that are recognized by B-cells are known as B-cell epitopes. 
Which of the following is a true statement regarding the B-cell epitope?
a) they are generally hydrophilic amino acids present on the surface
b) they contain both sequential and conformational epitopes
c) they tend to present in the flexible region of the antigens
d) All of the above

28) The epitopes that are recognized by T-cells are known as T-cell epitopes. 
Which of the following is a true statement regarding the T-cell epitope?
a) the epitopes are recognized by T-cell as a trimeric complex of TCR, antigen, and MHC molecule.
b) antigen processing is required for its presentation by APC
c) amino acid sequences of T-cell epitopes are generally internal of a protein molecule
d) All of the above

29) Name the congenital defect of thymus development that can lead to T-cell deficiency
a) Graves disease
b) Anaphylaxis
c) DeGeorge's syndrome
d) All of the above

30) Severe Combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) is a genetic disorder caused by a defective enzyme known as...................................................
a) Adenosine deaminase
b) Xanthine oxidase
c) Anaphyloticase
d) Lysozyme




Multiple Choice Questions Answer review
1- c)Clonal selection theory
2- c)Have memory cells
3-d)All of the above
4-b)Antibodies
5-c)Peptidoglycan
6-d)
7-d)All of the above
8-c)Humoral Immunity
9-d)Excess co-stimulatory signals from APCs lead to hyperactivation of an immune response
10-b) T-activator cells
11-c) Plasma cells
12-a)T-cell receptor
13-d)All of the above
14-c)Neutrophils
15-b) Oct-2 is required for B cell differentiation to plasma cells
16)-c)CD-32
17)-a) CD28
18)-d)CD45
19-b)Natural Killer cells
20)-a) Mesangial cells
21)-c)Hapten
22)-b)Collagen
23)-c) Heart
24)-d)Homopolymers
25)-a)CD1
26)-b)B cell and T cells recognize different epitopes
27)-d)
28)-d)
29)-c)DeGeorge's syndrome
30)-a)Adenosine deaminase

Comments

  1. How can TLR-2 recognize LPS? I thought was TLR4

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    Replies
    1. TLR4 is predominant receptor that recognizes LPS but several studies have highlighted that the biological activity of some LPSs is not restricted to TLR4. ( See Reference:https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2021.748303/full). In the question above, TLR2 is the best answer among the choices.
      Thank you for commenting

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