Nonclinical Non-human Primate Studies for Hemophilia investigate impact of preexisting antibodies against AAV5 on therapeutic efficacy

Long et al. & Majowicz et al. recently published papers (Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev, 2019) that reported potential impact of preexisting antibodies against adeno associated virus serotype 5 ( AAV5) in the efficacy of transgene expressions. These nonclinical nonhuman primate studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the gene therapy at varying level of preexisting antibodies. Factor VIII and factor IX activity as measured as a pharmacodynamic marker of efficacy.  The Following are the excerpts and the result summary from the study:

Journal: Molecular Therapy Methods & Clinical Development
Title: The Impact of Pre-existing Immunity on the Non-clinical Pharmacodynamics of AAV5-Based Gene Therapy
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are widely used for gene therapy, but the effect of pre-existing antibodies resulting from exposure to wild-type AAV is unclear. In addition, other poorly defined plasma factors could inhibit AAV vector transduction where antibodies are not detected. To better define the relationship between various forms of pre-existing AAV immunity and gene transfer, we studied valoctocogene roxaparvovec (BMN 270) in cynomolgus monkeys with varying pre-dose levels of neutralizing anti-AAV antibodies and non-antibody transduction inhibitors. BMN 270 is an AAV5-based vector for treating hemophilia A that encodes human B domain-deleted factor VIII (FVIII-SQ). After infusion of BMN 270 (6.0 × 1013 vg/kg) into animals with pre-existing anti-AAV5 antibodies, there was a mean decrease in maximal FVIII-SQ plasma concentration (Cmax) and AUC of 74.8% and 66.9%, respectively, compared with non-immune control animals, and vector genomes in the liver were reduced. 
In contrast, animals with only non-antibody transduction inhibitors showed FVIII-SQ plasma concentrations and liver vector copies comparable with those of controls. These results demonstrate that animals without AAV5 antibodies are likely responders to AAV5 gene therapy, regardless of other inhibiting plasma factors. The biological threshold for tolerable AAV5 antibody levels varied between individual animals and should be evaluated further in clinical studies.

Journal: Molecular Therapy Methods & Clinical Development
Title: Therapeutic hFIX Activity Achieved after Single AAV5-hFIX Treatment in Hemophilia B Patients and NHPs with Pre-existing Anti-AAV5 NABs
AbstractCurrently, individuals with pre-existing neutralizing antibodies (NABs) against adeno-associated virus (AAV) above titer of 5 are excluded from systemic AAV-based clinical trials. In this study we explored the impact of pre-existing anti-AAV5 NABs on the efficacy of AAV5-based gene therapy. AMT-060 (AAV5-human FIX) was evaluated in 10 adults with hemophilia B who tested negative for pre-existing anti-AAV5 NABs using a GFP-based assay. 
In this study, using a more sensitive luciferase-based assay, we show that 3 of those 10 patients tested positive for anti-AAV5 NABs. However, no relationship was observed between the presence of pre-treatment anti-AAV5 NABs and the therapeutic efficacy of AMT-060. Further studies in non-human primates (NHPs) showed that AAV5 transduction efficacy was similar following AMT-060 treatment, irrespective of the pre-existing anti-AAV5 NABs titers. We show that the therapeutic efficacy of AAV5-mediated gene therapy was achieved in humans with pre-existing anti-AAV5 NABs titers up to 340. Whereas in NHPs circulating human factor IX (hFIX) protein was achieved, at a level therapeutic in humans, with pre-existing anti-AAV5 NABs up to 1030. 
Based on those results, no patients were excluded from the AMT-061 (AAV5-hFIX-Padua) phase IIb clinical trial (n = 3). All three subjects presented pre-existing anti-AAV5 NABs, yet had therapeutic hFIX activity after AMT-061 administration.

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