Multiple Choice Question on Adrenal Hormones, Disorders & Adrenal Function Test



Multiple Choice Question on
 Adrenal Hormone Function, Disorder and Function Test

1) Which of the following adrenal regions do not produce the steroid hormones?
a) Zona glomerulosa
b) Zona fasciculata
c) Zona reticularis
d) Adrenal cortex

b) Which of the following hormones are synthesized by zona glomerulosa
a) Progesterone
b) Cortisol
c) Aldosterone
d) dehydroepiandrosterone 

3) Which of the following is not the 21-carbon steroid hormones?
a) Progesterone
b) Aldosterone
c) Cortisol
d) Androstenedione

4) Cortisol or glucocorticoid is a 21-carbon steroid hormone. Identify the FALSE statement related to glucocorticoids. 
a) Cortisol levels are highest just before waking (~8AM) and lowest in the evening (~12 midnight)
b) CRH stimulates the ACTH that in turn increases the synthesis of glucocorticoids
c) ACTH inhibits the enzyme cholesterol demolase in the adrenal cortex
d) ACTH regulates its own recept in the adrenal cortex and increases its sensitivity

5) Which of the following statement is FALSE regarding the Dexamethasone suppression test 
a) The test is based on the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit ACTH secretion
b) The suppression of the glucocorticoid release by dexamethasone administration is suggestive of Adrenal cortical tumors
c) The suppression of the glucocorticoid release by dexamethasone administration is suggestive of ACTH secreting tumors
d) All of the above

6) Glucocorticoids stimulate gluconeogenesis by the following mechanisms
a) Increase protein catabolism and availability of amino acids
b) Decreased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue
c) Increased lipolysis and increase availability of glycerol pool
d) All of the above

7) Glucocorticoids possess anti-inflammatory effects by the following mechanism EXCEPT
a) Induce the synthesis of lipocortin
b) Inhibit the production of interleukin-2 and inhibit T cell proliferation
c) Induce the release of histamine and serotonin from mast cells
d) Decrease production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes

8) Aldosterone is a hormone that increases the renal reabsorption of Na+, and increases extracellular fluid and blood volume. Identify the correct statement associated with aldosterone
a) Renin-Angiotensin feedback loop decreases the synthesis of aldosterone
b) Hyperkalemia reduces the aldosterone secretion
c) ACTH increases the production of aldosterone
d)  None of the above 

9) Addison disease- a primary insufficiency of the adrenal cortex:
a) It is caused by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex
b) It results in decreased glucocorticoid, androgen, and aldosterone
c) It causes increased ACTH level 
d) It causes hyperpigmentation
e) All of the above



10) Cushing disease is caused by the excess production of glucocorticoid. Cushing disease is characterized by 
a) increased cortisol, decreased ACTH, hyperglycemia and muscle wasting
b) increased cortisol, increased ACTH, hyperglycemia and muscle wasting
c) increased cortisol, decreased ACTH, hypoglycemia and muscle wasting
c) increased cortisol, increased ACTH, hypoglycemia and muscle wasting

11) Conn Syndrome is a disease caused by an aldosterone-secreting tumor resulting in an increased aldosterone level. Which of the following does not accurately characterize Conn syndrome?
a) Hypertension
b) Hyperkalemia
c) Metabolic alkalosis
d) Decreased renin secretion

12) Which of the following condition does not accurately characterize the congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21 beta-hydroxylase deficiency?
a) Elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone
b) Elevated Aldosterone
c) Hyponatremia
d) Hyperkalemia

13) Which of the following would be seen on laboratory examination of a patient suffering from hypercortisolism?
a) Decreased plasma cortisol, decreased plasma ACTH, without hyperpigmentation
b) Decreased plasma cortisol, increased plasma ACTH, with hyperpigmentation
c) Increased plasma cortisol, increased plasma ACTH, with hyperpigmentation
d) Increased plasma cortisol, decreased plasma ACTH, without hyperpigmentation

14) Which of the following would be associated with parallel changes in aldosterone and cortisol secretion?
a) Addison's disease
b) Cushing's disease
c) Low sodium diet
d) Administration of a converting enzyme inhibitor

15) Excess consumption of potassium result in
a) Increased secretion of cortisol
b) Increased secretion of aldosterone
c) Increased secretion of ACTH
d) Decreased secretion of CRH



Answers
1-d) Adrenal cortex
2-c) Aldosterone
3-d) Androstenedione
4-c) ACTH inhibits the enzyme cholesterol demolase in the adrenal cortex
5-b) The suppression of the glucocorticoid release by dexamethasone administration is suggestive of Adrenal cortical tumors
6-d) All of the above
7-c) Induce the release of histamine and serotonin from mast cells
8-c) ACTH increases the production of aldosterone
9-e) All of the above
10-a) increased cortisol, decreased ACTH, hyperglycemia and muscle wasting
11-b) Hyperkalemia
12-b) Elevated Aldosterone
13-d) Increased plasma cortisol, decreased plasma ACTH, without hyperpigmentation
14-a) Addison's disease
15-c) Increased secretion of aldosterone

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