Technology Review: Gyrolab Platform and its application in Biomarker, Pharmacokinetic and immunogencity testing

Introduction to Gyrolab 

-Gyrolab® immunoassay platforms miniaturize, integrate and automate the analysis of large numbers of samples in parallel to minimize user error, significantly increase productivity and cut time to develop and validate assays to obtain study results.

-Gyrolab software, designed for 21 CFR part 11 compliance, makes data collection, evaluation, and migration into your existing LIMS straightforward.

Gyrolab Instrumentation and Principle-I 

Gyrolab Instrumentation and Principle-II

References for PK and Biomarker Assay 

Development and validation of an alpha fetoprotein immunoassay using Gyros technology.
Given et al. 
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012 May;64-65:8-15.
Circulating alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with potential utility as a pharmacodynamic endpoint in rodent tumor models. This application is limited, however, by low sample volumes, highlighting the need for sensitive, sample-sparing biomarker assay methods. In order to improve the utility of AFP as an oncology biomarker, we developed a method for AFP using the Gyrolab™, an automated microimmunoassay platform. Commercially available antibodies were screened to identify optimal combinations that were then used in a multi-factorial design of experiments (DOE) to optimize reaction conditions. Analytical validation included assessments of accuracy and precision (A&P), and dilutional linearity/hook effect, as well as reagent and sample stability. The method is reliable, with total error, a measure of accuracy and precision, less than 30% for all concentrations tested. AFP concentrations were measurable in diseased mice and undetectable in normal mice. Therefore, this novel, low volume AFP immunoassay is suitable for pre-clinical drug development, where its miniaturized format facilitates serial sampling in rodent models of cancer.
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Overcoming disease-specific matrix effect in a clinical pharmacokinetic assay using a microfluidic immunoassay technology. 
Williams et al. 
Bioanalysis. 2017 Aug;9(16):1207-1216
AIM: Etrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has demonstrated clinical remission in a Phase II study of ulcerative colitis patients. In the Phase III program, a second indication, Crohn's disease was added. The pharmacokinetic ELISA used in the Phase I/II studies in normal human and ulcerative colitis sera exhibited matrix interference in the Crohn's disease population, necessitating implementation of a new technology. Methodology & results: Optimization of the original ELISA and assay redevelopment using different antibody pairs did not result in substantive improvements, necessitating implementation of an alternative technology for assay development. CONCLUSION: We highlight the challenges encountered with optimization/redevelopment of the original ELISA and discuss results of the new assay on the Gyros platform.

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Bioanalytical platform comparison using a generic human IgG PK assay format. 
Leary BA et al.
Immunol Methods. 2013 Nov 29;397(1-2):28-36
A comparison of four different ligand-binding assay technology platforms (ELISA, Meso Scale Discovery®, Gyros® and AlphaLISA®) was conducted using quantitative assays for the measurement of a human IgG₁ monoclonal antibody (MAb) in rat serum. The assays used common reagents for Fc-specific measurement to determine total levels of a human IgG MAb drug analyte and all were fully optimized for use on each platform. Mock MAb study samples were prepared and analyzed using all platforms to assess assay performance. Assay parameters such as sensitivity, dynamic range, minimum required dilution and sample volume as well as other considerations such as per-run cost, technology availability, requisite equipment and necessary reagent modifications were evaluated toward the determination of a default go-to assay platform for monoclonal antibody biotherapeutics in this laboratory. Based primarily on superior assay performance, Meso Scale Discovery and Gyros were selected from the four technologies evaluated as our default platforms for non-regulated (discovery) study support. As an adjunct, immunoaffinity LC-MS/MS was explored as an alternate platform for generic Fc quantitation and was found to perform similarly to the ligand-binding assays.
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Immunogenicity ADA assays

Solution ELISA as a platform of choice for development of robust, drug tolerant immunogenicity assays in support of drug development.
Mikulskis et al. 
J Immunol Methods. 2011 Feb 28;365(1-2):38-49.
Humanized monoclonal antibody therapeutics are in many ways indistinguishable from the anti-therapeutic/anti-drug antibodies generated in humans. Therefore, immunogenicity assessments to such therapeutics pose unique challenges in clinical trials especially when significant drug interference is encountered. There are several technology platforms based on the bridging immunogenicity assay format, which have been successfully used for detection and quantification of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) in serum or plasma samples. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay formats are among the most popular technology platforms. Pretreatment of samples with acid can also be used to lower drug interference. While ECL technology platform offered many advantages over traditional solid-phase ELISA methods, reliance on a single (or limited) vendor source became a significant concern within the biopharmaceutical industry especially for immunogenicity assays that need to be implemented over a period of many years in support of a single drug development program. We describe herein a systematic evaluation of solid-phase ELISA, GYROS, AlphaLISA, ECL Immunoassay, and solution ELISA platforms for detection of anti-drug antibodies with the goal of selection and development of a robust technology platform that meets the desired performance characteristics for most immunogenicity assays and can be easily implemented in a typical immunoassay laboratory. As part of this effort the Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was utilized in optimization of sample acid treatment conditions in order to improve drug tolerance in the evaluated assay platforms. After the initial evaluation of various technology platforms, a solution ELISA format was chosen for further development to support clinical trials for a humanized therapeutic antibody. As part of the assay development, flexible use of digoxigenin and 6-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) aminohexanoic acid (DNP) for labeling antibodies was evaluated and is presented in this manuscript. In addition, simple methods for evaluation and qualification of streptavidin-coated plates and overcoming soluble target interference in solution ELISA have also been investigated and highlights of these investigations are discussed. The selection of the solution ELISA format was based on availability of generic reagents, achievement of optimal drug tolerance and robust assay performance on a platform that is readily available in many laboratories. This approach removed the heavy reliance on specialized equipment sourced from a single vendor and assay conditions described here are broadly applicable to other immunogenicity assays across many biologics both during clinical development setting and in the post-marketing arena.

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Improving anti-drug antibody assay performance in Gyrolab for therapeutic recombinant antibody Infliximab
Cecilia Bill(Master thesis)
Monoclonal antibodies can be used as targeting therapies for several diseases. One major concern when using these therapies is anti-drug antibodies which may hamper the drugs efficiency. Gyrolab is an automated platform which can be used to develop bridging immunoassays where the anti-drug antibodies affinity towards the monoclonal antibody is utilized. Anti-drug antibody immunoassay development on Gyrolab is limited mainly by three factors which may inappropriately affect signal intensity levels. In this project different variants of bridging immunoassays based on drug Fab fragments have been developed for monoclonal antibody Infliximab, with the purpose to illustrate the effects of these three factors.
Findings indicate that an assay based completely on drug Fab fragments is more sensitive compared to an assay based on intact drug since less affected by unspecific interactions between drug reagents and complex formations. Surprisingly findings also indicate that an assay based completely on drug Fab fragments is affected by human anti-hinge antibodies which decrease assay sensitivity. The most optimal assay variant is based on the combination between intact capture drug and Fab fragment as detection. This variant is insensitive to false positive reactions caused by Rheumatoid factor and human anti-hinge antibodies, less prone to form unspecific interactions between drug reagents and complex formations in the presence of anti-drug antibodies. The optimal assay variant also demonstrates best drug tolerance in combination with acid dissociation.